Karakteristik Gangguan Dengar Sensorineural Kongenital pada Anak yang Dideteksi dengan Brainstem Evoked Response Audiometry

Yussy Afriani Dewi, Ratna Anggraeni Agustian

Abstract


Gangguan dengar merupakan salah satu kelainan yang sering timbul sejak lahir (kongenital), sehingga deteksi dan rehabilitasi dini yang tepat dapat meningkatkan perkembangan bicara dan berbahasa. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui berbagai aspek gangguan dengar kongenital dari segi klinik maupun sosiologik. Subjek penelitian adalah anak yang dilakukan brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA) di Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin dengan gangguan dengar sensorineural bilateral kongenital selama periode April 2002–April 2005. Penelitian dilakukan secara deskriptif retrospektif. Sebanyak 286 anak termasuk dalam penelitian terdiri atas 149 (52,1%) laki-laki dan 137 (47,9%) perempuan. Sebanyak 58,7% terdeteksi pada usia >1–3 tahun. Usia anak saat dicurigai menderita gangguan dengar mulai dari usia 5 bulan sampai 14 tahun. Tenggang waktu antara usia pada saat mulai dicurigai adanya gangguan dengar dan dilakukan BERA adalah 82 (28,7%) <6 bulan, 72 (25,2%) antara >6 bulan sampai <1 tahun, dan 70 (24,4%) antara >1 sampai< 2 tahun. Penderita lebih banyak berasal dari daerah perkotaan, yaitu 149 (52,1%) anak dan sebagian besar dirujuk oleh spesialis THT sebanyak 129 (45,1%). Derajat gangguan dengar terbanyak adalah berat 181 (63,3%) dan sangat berat 96 (33,6%), sebagian besar bersifat simetris (71%). Faktor risiko terbanyak tidak teridentifikasi (51,1%), prematur/BBLR (13,6%), asfiksia (13,3%), hiperbilirubinemia (8,7%), dan rubela (7,3%). Simpulan, usia curiga pada saat anak dideteksi mengalami gangguan dengar masih tinggi. Agar deteksi dapat lebih dini, perlu peningkatan pengetahuan tenaga kesehatan dan masyarakat serta upaya pencegahan terhadap faktor risiko. [MKB. 2011;43(2):77–82].

Kata kunci: Anak, brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA), gangguan dengar sensorineural bilateral kongenital

 

Characteristic of Congenital Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss in
Children Diagnosed by Brain Evoked Response Audiometry

Hearing loss is one of the most common congenital anomalies, therefore early detection and rehabilitation might enhance speech ability. The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical and sociological characteristics of congenital bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Subjects were children who suffered from congenital bilateral sensorineural hearing loss diagnosed by brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA) in Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital from period of April 2002–April 2005. Data obtained retrospectively from patient’s record and presented descriptively. There were 286 children included in the study consisted of 149 (52.1%) males and 137 (47.9%) females. More (58.8%) children were detected by BERA at age of >1–3 years. Children’s age that first suspected to have hearing disorder was between 5 months and 14 years old. The delay between suspected and diagnosis was 82 (28.7%) <6 months, 72 (25.2%) between >6 months–<1 year, 70 (24.4%) between >1–<2 years. There were 52.1% (149) subjects came from urban area and 45.1% (129) of them were referred by otolaryngology-head and neck surgery specialists. The degrees of hearing loss were severe 181 (63,3%) and profound 96 (33.6%). Most cases (71%) were symmetrical. The cause of hearing loss in 51.1% of children couldn’t be determined, 13.6% were premature/low birth weight, 13.6% asphyxia, 8.7% hyperbilirubinemia, and 7.3% rubella. Conclusions, age of children when suspected to have hearing disorder is still high. Early detection needs knowledge from health provider officer, society, and prevention of the risk factors. [MKB. 2011;43(2):77–82].

Key words: Brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA), child, congenital bilateral sensorineural hearing loss

 

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v43n2.47


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