Comparison of Histological Characteristics of Dried and Fresh Amnion Membranes and Dura Mater in Non-Human Primate (Macaca fascicularis)

Astrina Rosaria Indah, Hendrikus Masang B. Bolly, Ahmad Faried, Muhammad Zafrullah Arifin, Achadiyani Achadiyani, Firman Fuad Wirakusumah


This study aimed to characterize the histological properties of dry-lyophilized amniotic membrane, fresh amniotic membrane (AM), and duramater membrane in search for a biologically-derived material suitable for meninges surface reconstruction. This descriptive study was conducted at the Unit-3 Laboratory of Animal Test of PT. Bio Farma (Persero), Bandung and Cell Biology Laboratory of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran Bandung. This study was conducted from 2018-2019. Fresh Macacafascicularis placenta from healthy donors,classified as specific pathogen-free for TB, SIV, SV40, Polio type 1,2,3, Foamy virus and Herpes B virus, were obtained from selected caesarean sections.The harvested dried and fresh AM and duramater membrane were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and prepared for characterization. Histological examination of dry-lyophilized and fresh AM showed similar results. Histologically, AM is represented by a single layer of metabolically-active cuboidal to columnar epithelium with microvilli firmly attached to a basement membrane and an avascular and relatively sparsely populated stroma. Meninges layers consists of 3 layers: duramater, arachnoid membrane, and piamater. Most of these cells have the same characteristics as fibroblasts, including long organelles and nuclei with various levels of fibril formation. The histological study of amniotic membrane and duramater membrane shows comparable results. The AM is a biologically-derived material suitable for meninges surface reconstruction since its histological structure is somewhat similar to that of the duramater. Its structure is ideal for replacing duramater since it has several characteristics, such as having hygroscopic properties, good biocompatibility, relatively easy to apply, and inexpensive. 

Key words: Dried and fresh amnion membranes, duramater membranes, non-human primate


Karakteristik Histologis Membran Amnion Jenis Kering dan Segar dengan Membran Duramater pada Primata Non-Human Macaca fascicularis

Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui karakteristik histologis membran amnion kering yang diliofilisasi, membran amnion segar, dan duramater, dalam rangka mencari bahan biologis yang cocok untuk rekonstruksi permukaan meninges. Penelitian deskriptif dilakukan di Laboratorium Hewan Uji PT. Bio Farma dan Laboratorium Biologi Sel FK Universitas Padjadjaran periode 2018-2019. Plasenta Primata non-human Macaca fascicularis segar dari donor sehat, yang bebas dari pathogen spesifik TB, SIV, SV40, Polio tipe 1, 2, 3, virus Foamy dan virus Herpes B, diperoleh dari seksio sesarea. Kemudian, dilakukan pewarnaan dengan hematoxylin-eosin untuk membran amnion kering dan segar, serta membran duramater untuk mengetahui karakterisasi histologisnya. Pemeriksaan histologis membran amnion kering-yang aktif bermetabolisme hingga kolumnar dengan mikrovili; melekat kuat pada membran basal dan stroma yang avaskular dan relatif jarang. Lapisan Meninges terdiri dari 3 lapisan: duramater, arachnoid dan piamater. Sebagian besar sel-sel ini memiliki karakteristik yang sama dengan fibroblas. Studi histologis membran amnion dan membran duramater memiliki struktur yang relatif serupa. Membran amnion adalah material yang secara biologis cocok untuk rekonstruksi permukaan meningen, karena struktur histologinya agak mirip dengan duramater. Oleh karena itu secara struktur, membran amnion ideal untuk menggantikan duramater karena memiliki beberapa karakteristik seperti sifat higroskopis, biokompatibilitas baik, mudah diterapkan, dan murah.

Kata kunci: Membran amnion segar dan kering, membran duramater, primate non-human


Dried and fresh amnion membranes, duramater membranes, non-human primate

Full Text:



Miki T. Amnion-derived stem cells : in quest of clinical applications. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2011;2(3):1–11.

Jones GLA. Amniotic membrane in ophthalmology: properties, preparation, storage and indications for grafting–a review. Cell Tissue Bank. 2017;18(2):193–204.

Chopra A, Thomas BS. Amniotic membrane: a novel material for regeneration and repair. J BiomimBiomater Tissue Eng. 2013;18:106.

Ihsan P. The difference of epidermal growth factor concentration between fresh and freeze-dried amniotic membranes. J Oftalmol Indones. 2009;7(2):62–6.

Lei J, Priddy LB, Lim JJ, Massee M, Koob TJ. Identification of extracellular matrix components and biological factors in micronized dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane. Wound Heal Soc. 2017;6(2):43–53.

Rodríguez-Ares MT, López-Valladares MJ, Touriño R, Vieites B, Gude F, Silva MT, et al. Effects of lyophilization on human amniotic membrane. Acta Ophthalmol. 2009;87:396–403.

Vidane AS, Souza AF, Sampaio RV, Bressan FF, Pieri NC, Martins DS, et al. Cat amniotic membrane multipotent cells are nontumorigenic and are safe for use in cell transplantation. Stem Cells Cloning. 2014;7:71–8.

Mamede AC, Carvalho MJ, Abrantes AM, Laranjo M, Maia CJ, Botelho MF, et al. Amniotic membrane: from structure and functions to clinical applications. Cell Tissue Res. Cell Tissue Res. 2012;349(2):447–58.

Roubelakis MG, Trohatou O, Anagnou NP. Amniotic fluid and amniotic membrane stem cells : marker discovery. Stem Cell Int. 2012;2012:1–9.

Hamill KJ, Kligys K, Hopkinson SB, Jones JCR. Laminin deposition in the extracellular matrix: a complex picture emerges. J Cell Sci. 2009;122(24):4409–17.

Gupta A, Kedige SD, Jain K. Amnion and chorion membranes: potential stem cell reservoir with wide applications in periodontics. Int J Biomater. 2015;2015:1–7.

Enders AC, Blankenship TN. Comparative placental structure. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 1999;38(1):3–15

Disposition D. The macaque placenta-a mini-review. Soc Toxicol Pathol. 2008;36:108–18.

Niknejad H, Peirovi H, Jorjani M, Ahmadiani A, Ghanavi J, Seifalian AM. Properties of the amniotic membrane for potential use in tissue engineering. Eur Cell Mater. 2008;15:88–99.

Malhotra C, Jain AK. Human amniotic membrane transplantation: different modalities of its use in ophthalmology. World J Transplant. 2014;4(2):111–121.

Jirsova K, Jones GLA. Amniotic membrane in ophthalmology: properties, preparation, storage and indications for grafting—a review. Cell Tissue Bank. 2017;18(2):193–204.

Khalil NM, Melek NLF. Histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of lyophilized amniotic membrane in bone healing: an experimental study in rabbit’s femur. Futur Dent J. 2018;4(2):1–6.

Adeeb N, Mortazavi MM, Tubbs RS, Cohen-gadol AA. The cranial dura mater: a review of its history , embryology , and anatomy. Childs Nerv Syst. 2012;28(6):827–37.

Knappe UJ, Fink T, Fisseler-eckhoff A, Schoenmayr R. Expression of extracellular matrix-proteins in perisellar connective tissue and dura mater. Acta Neurochir. 2010;152(2):345–53.

Esposito F, Cappabianca P, Fusco M, Cavallo LM, Bani GG, Biroli F, et al. Collagen-only biomatrix as a novel dural substitute Examination of the efficacy, safety and outcome: clinical experience on a series of 208 patients. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2008;110(4):343–51.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 693 times
PDF - 657 times

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


Creative Commons License
MKB is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License


View My Stats