Knee Extensor Strength Prediction Formula Using Modified Aneroid Sphygmomanometer in Healthy Female Adults

Erik Setiawan, Marietta Shanti Prananta, Novitri Novitri


Objective: To discover isometric knee extensor muscle strength prediction formula using hand-held dynamometer (HHD) through the use of modified aneroid sphygmomanometer (MAS). Isometric knee extensor muscle strength examination is required to diagnose and evaluate the treatment of quadriceps femoris weakness.

Methods: This was a quantitative observational and correlational analysis study with cross-sectional design. Isometric knee extensor muscle strength was measured using HHD and MAS with 60o knee flexion in sitting position. Correlation tests were performed to investigate the correlation between HHD, MAS, and other variables. Regression test was carried out to analyze knee extensor strength regression using HHD through MAS.

Results: TSubjects enrolled were 25 healthy females aged 23–52 years old. The correlation between HHD and MAS was significant while age, body weight, body height, and body mass index (BMI) did not show correlation with HHD and MAS. The isometric knee extensor muscle strength using HHD could be predicted by formula = 0.1041xMAS.

Conclusions: Isometric knee extensor muscle strength measured using HHD strongly correlates with that of using MAS with 60o knee flexion in sitting position and can be predicted from measurement values of MAS. The formula is only suitable for females.

Keywords: Hand-held dynamometer, knee extensor, prediction formula, sphygmomanometer


DOI: 10.15850/ijihs.v6n1.1103



Hand-held dynamometer, knee extensor, prediction formula, sphygmomanometer

Full Text:



Jensen AM, Stevens RJ, Burls AJ. Estimating the accuracy of muscle response testing: two randomised-order blinded studies. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016;16(1):492–8.

Garcia SC, Dueweke JJ, Mendias CL. Optimal joint positions for manual isometric muscle testing. J Sport Rehabil. 2016;24(1):1–13.

Iwamoto K, Yoshio M, Takata Y, Kozuka N. Reliability and validity of standing balance assessment index using a hand-held dynamometer in stroke patients. J Phys Ther Sci. 2016;28(11):3158–61.

Wadsworth CT, Krishnan R, Sear M, Harrold J, Nielsen DH. Intrarater reliability of manual muscle testing and hand-held dynamometric muscle testing. Phys Ther. 1987;67(9):1342–7.

Kelln BM, McKeon PO, Gontkof LM, Hertel J. Hand-held dynamometry: reliability of lower extremity muscle testing in healthy, physically active, young adults. J Sport Rehabil. 2008;17(2):160–70.

Stark T, Walker B, Philips JK, Fejer R, Beck R. Hand-held dynamometry correlation with the gold standard isokinetic dynamometry: a systematic review. AAPMR. 2011;3(5):472–9.

Weng P, Janssen J, Richards JD, Selfe J. Validity of two clinical knee strength assessments compared to the reference standard. IJPR. 2015;3(6):1264–70.

Thorborg K, Bandholm T, Holmich P. Hip- and knee-strength assessments using a hand-held dynamometer with external belt-fixation are inter-tester reliable. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2012;21(3):550–5.

Katoh M, Yamasaki H. Test-retest reliability of isometric leg muscle strength measurements made using a hand-held dynamometer restrained by a belt: comparisons during and between sessions. J Phys Ther Sci. 2009;21(3):239–43.

Souza LA, Martins JC, Moura JB, Teixeira-Salmela LF, Paula FVD, Faria CD. Assessment of muscular strength with the modified sphygmomanometer test: what is the best method and source of outcome values? Braz J Phys Ther. 2014;18(2):191–200.

Souza LA, Martins JC, Teixeira-Salmela LF, Lara EM, Moura JB, Aguiar LT, et al. Validity and reliability of the modified sphygmomanometer test to assess strength of the lower limbs and trunk muscles after stroke. J Rehabil Med. 2014;46(7):620–8.

Helewa A, Goldsmith CH, Smythe HA. The modified sphygmomanometer - an instrument to measure muscle strength: a validation study. J Chron Dis. 1981;34(7):353–61.

Martins JC, Teixeira-Salmela LF, Souza LA, Aguiar LT, Lara EM, Moura JB, et al. Reliability and validity of the modified sphygmomanometer test for the assessment of strength of upper limb muscles after stroke. J Rehabil Med. 2015;47(8):697–705.

Ford-Smith CD, Wyman JF, Elswick RK, Fernandez T. Reliability of stationary dynamometer muscle strength testing in community-dwelling older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82(8):1128–32.

Muscle activity and strength. In: Houglum PA, Bertoti DB, editors. Brunnstrom’s clinical kinesiology. 6th ed. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company; 2012. p. 125–57.

Arnold CM, Warkentin KD, Chilibeck PD, Magnus CR. The reliability and validity of handheld dynamometry for the measurement of lower-extremity muscle strength in older adults. JSCR. 2010;24(3):815–24.

Azad AK, Nabi G, Shakoor MA, Moyeenuzzaman MD. Role of muscle strengthening exercise on osteoarthritis of the knee joint. JOM. 2011;12(2):120–4.

Yahin A, Moeliono MA, Prananta MS. Handgrip strength prediction formula using aneroid sphygmomanometer in elderly. IJIHS. 2016;4(2):47–55.

Katch VL, McArdle WD, Katch FI. Essentials of exercise physiology. 4th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.

Stone CA, Nolan B, Lawlor PG, Kenny RA. Hand-held dynamometry: tester strength is paramount, even in frail populations. J Rehabil Med. 2011;43(9):808–11.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 686 times
PDF - 403 times


This Journal indexed by



Creative Commons License
IJIHS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

View My Stats