Correlation between Handgrip Strength, Mobilization Function, Physical Activity Level, and Muscle Mass in Community-Dwelling Elderly in Bandung, West Java Province, Indonesia

Sari Sekarsari, Vitriana Vitriana, Irma Ruslina Defi


Objective: To investigate correlation between handgrip strength, mobilization function, and physical activity level (PAL), and muscle mass in community-dwelling Indonesian elderly.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study 193 subjects aged 60–90 years. Handgrip strength was measured using handgrip dynamometer while the mobilization function was assessed by performing gait speed test. Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to assess the participant’s PAL and Bio Impedance Analyzer was used to measure the participant’s muscle mass based on skeletal mass index.

Results: Significant positive correlations were discovered between handgrip strength and walking speed (rs. 0.501; p<0.001), PAL (rs. 0.153; p=0.003), and muscle mass (rs. 0,452; p<0.001).

Conclusion: Stronger handgrip determines greater mobilization function, physical activity level, and bigger muscle mass in community-dwelling Indonesian elderly. 

Keywords: Gait speed, handgrip strength, muscle mass, physical activity


DOI: 10.15850/ijihs.v6n1.1047


Gait speed, handgrip strength, muscle mass, physical activity

Full Text:



Keller K, Engelhardt M. Strength and muscle mass loss with aging process age and strength loss. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J. 2013;3(4): 346–50.

Delmonico M, Harris T. Longitudinal study of muscle strength, quality and adipose tissue infiltration. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;90(6): 1579–85.

Liu LK, Lee WJ, Liu CL, Chen LY, Lin MH, Pneg LN, et al. Age-related skeletal muscle mass loss and physical performance in Taiwan: implications to diagnostic strategy of sarcopenia in Asia. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2013;13(4):964–71.

Wang CY, Olson SL, Protas EJ. Lower extremity muscle performance associated with community ambulation in elderly fallers. Asian J Gerontol Geriatr. 2009;4(1):52–7.

Sirajudeen MH, Shah U, Pillai PS, Mohasin N, Shantaram M. Correlation between grip strength and physical factors in men. Int J Health Rehabil Sci. 2012;1(2):58–63.

El-Sais WM, Mohammad WS. Influence of different testing postures on hand grip strength. Eur Sci J. 2014;10(36):290–301.

Chen LK, Liu LK, Woo J, Assantachai P, Auyeung TW, Bahyah KS, et al. Sarcopenia in Asia: consensus report of the Asian working group for sarcopenia. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2014;15(2):95–101.

World Health Organization. Global physical activity surveillance. [cited 2015 July 6. Available form:

Yudianto, Budijanto D, Hardhana B, Soenardi T. Profil Kesehatan Indonesia 2014. Jakarta: Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2015.

Yuliati A, Baroya N, RiriantyM. Perbedaan kualitas hidup lansia yang tinggal di komunitas dengan di pelayanan sosial lanjut usia. Pustaka Kesehatan. 2014;2(1)87–94.

Prachuabmoh V. Preparation for old age and social participation of present and future old persons in Thailand: gender difference. In: Devasahayam WT, editor. Gender and ageing: Southeast Asian perspectives. Singapore: ISEAS; 2014. p. 115–7.

Lee JE, Kim KW, Paik N, Jang H, Chang CB, et al. Evaluation of factors influencing grip strength in elderly Koreans. J Bone Metab. 2012;19(2):103–10.

Silva A, Shen W, Heo M, Gallagher D, Wang Z, Sardina LB, et al. Ethnicity-related skeletal muscle differences across the lifespan. Am J Hum Biol. 2010;22(1):76–82.

Wang CY, Olson SL, Protas EJ. Lower extremity muscle performance associated with community ambulation in elderly fallers. Asian J Gerontol Geriatr. 2009;4(1):52–7.

Deeg D, Bouter L. Skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength in relation to lower extremity performance in older men and women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2000;49(4):380–7.

Busch T, Duarte Y, Nunes D, Lebrao M, Naslavsky M, Rodrigues A, et al. Factors associated with lower gait speed among the elderly living in a developing country: a cross-sectional population-based study. BMC Geriatr [serial on the internet]. 2015 Apr [cited 2016 Mar 7];15(35):[about 9p.]. Available from:

Hamrik Z, Sigmundora D, Sigmund E. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in Czech adults. Eur J Sport Sci. 2014;14(2):193–8.

Bai HJ, Sun JQ, Chen M, Xu DF, Xie H, Yu ZW, et al. Age related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function among elderly men and women in Shanghai, China: a coss sectional study. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(2)326–32.

Clark G, Kortebein P, Siebens H. Aging and rehabilitation. In: Fontera W, editor. Delisa’s physical medicine and rehabilitation. Philadelphia: Lippincot Williams & Wilkins; 2010. p. 1545–77.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 1585 times
PDF - 501 times


This Journal indexed by



Creative Commons License
IJIHS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

View My Stats