Risk Factor of Stillbirth among Pregnant Women at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung from 2017–2020

David Immanuel, Hadi Susiarno, Windi Nurdiawan

Abstract


Background: Stillbirth is one of the most devastating pregnancy outcomes that affects approximately 2.6 million pregnancies worldwide. Several factors have been identified to be associated with stillbirth, and grouped based on the pathophysiological aspects, such as maternal, placental, fetal, and unknown or unexplained factors. This study aimed to describe the prevalence, along with the baseline and risk factor characteristics of stillbirth among singleton pregnancies at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung.

Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study design was conducted, including all stillbirth medical records from 2017 to 2020 obtained from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Medical records with complete baseline data, 2nd–3rd trimester pregnancies, and singleton pregnancies were collected.

Results: The prevalence of stillbirth cases in this study was 2.2%. Most of the cases occurred in the age range of 20–35 years old (64.4%) with the gestational age of >28 weeks (65.8%). Of all risk factors observed, hypertensive disorders were the most common medical conditions found (45.6%), followed by unknown factors (17.8%), and congenital abnormalities (14.2%).

Conclusions: The majority of stillbirth patients are at their optimal reproductive age, nulliparity, and have hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, specifically the superimposed preeclampsia subtype. Although the prevalence is considerably low, early management of the risk factors, particularly hypertensive disorder, is important to prevent its occurrence.


Keywords


Characteristics, prevalence, risk factor, stillbirth

Full Text:

PDF

References


  1. Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network Writing Group. Causes of death among stillbirths. JAMA. 2011;306(22):2459–68.
  2. Tavares Da Silva F, Gonik B, McMillan M, Keech C, Dellicour S, Bhange S, et al. Stillbirth: case definition and guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of maternal immunization safety data. Vaccine. 2016;34(49):6057–68.
  3. Blencowe H, Cousens S, Jassir FB, Say L, Chou D, Mathers C, et al. National, regional, and worldwide estimates of stillbirth rates in 2015, with trends from 2000: a systematic analysis. Lancet Glob Health. 2016;4(2):e98–108.
  4. Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Jawa Barat. Profil kesehatan Provinsi Jawa Barat tahun 2012. Bandung: Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Jawa Barat; 2012.
  5. Gravensteen IK, Jacobsen EM, Sandset PM, Helgadottir LB, Rådestad I, Sandvik L, et al. Anxiety, depression and relationship satisfaction in the pregnancy following stillbirth and after the birth of a live-born baby: a prospective study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018;18(1):41.
  6. Reinebrant HE, Leisher SH, Coory M, Henry S, Wojcieszek AM, Gardener G, et al. Making stillbirths visible: a systematic review of globally reported causes of stillbirth. BJOG. 2018;125(2):212–24.
  7. Wojcieszek AM, Shepherd E, Middleton P, Gardener G, Ellwood DA, McClure EM, et al. Interventions for investigating and identifying the causes of stillbirth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;4(4):CD012504.
  8. Khedagi AM, Bello NA. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Cardiol Clin. 2021;39(1):77–90.
  9. Wang W, Xie X, Yuan T, Wang Y, Zhao F, Zhou Z, et al. Epidemiological trends of maternal hypertensive disorders of pregnancy at the global, regional, and national levels: a population‐based study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2021;21(1):364.
  10. DeSilva M, Munoz FM, Mcmillan M, Kawai AT, Marshall H, Macartney KK, et al. Congenital anomalies: case definition and guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data. Vaccine. 2016;34(49):6015–26.
  11. Man J, Hutchinson JC, Heazell AE, Ashworth M, Levine S, Sebire NJ. Stillbirth and intrauterine fetal death: factors affecting determination of cause of death at autopsy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2016;48(5):566–73.
  12. Mahardika A, Ningrum WM. Gambaran faktor risiko pada ibu dengan bayi lahir mati (Stillbirth) di Kabupaten Tasikmalaya tahun 2017. J Midwifery Public Health. 2019;1(2):3027.
  13. Sharma B, Bhattarai S, Shrestha S, Joshi R, Tamrakar R, Singh P, et al. Maternal and fetal characteristics and causes of stillbirth in a tertiary care hospital of Nepal: secondary analysis of registry-based surveillance data. BMJ Open. 2021;11(8):e045012.
  14. Berhe T, Gebreyesus H, Teklay H. Prevalence and determinants of stillbirth among women attended deliveries in Aksum General Hospital: a facility based cross-sectional study. BMC Res Notes. 2019;12(1):368.
  15. Desisto CL, Wallace B, Simeone RM, Polen K, Ko JY, Meaney-Delman D, et al. Risk for stillbirth among women with and without COVID-19 at delivery hospitalization-United States, March 2020–September 2021. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021;70(47):1640–5.
  16. McClure EM, Saleem S, Goudar SS, Garces A, Whitworth R, Esamai F, et al. Stillbirth 2010–2018: a prospective, population-based, multi-country study from the Global Network. Reprod Health. 2020;17(Suppl 2):146.
  17. Maducolil MK, Abid H, Lobo RM, Chughtai AQ, Afzal AM, Saleh HAH, et al. Risk factors and classification of stillbirth in a Middle Eastern population: a retrospective study. J Perinat Med. 2018;46(9):1022–7.
  18. Kametas NA, Nzelu D, Nicolaides KH. Chronic hypertension and superimposed preeclampsia: screening and diagnosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2022 Feb;226(2S):S1182–95.
  19. Phipps E, Prasanna D, Brima W, Jim B. Preeclampsia: updates in pathogenesis, definitions, and guidelines. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016;11(6):1102–13.
  20. Fox R, Kitt J, Leeson P, Aye CYL, Lewandowski AJ. Preeclampsia: risk factors, diagnosis, management, and the cardiovascular impact on the offspring. J Clin Med. 2019;8(10):1625.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.15850/amj.v9n4.2646

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 247 times
PDF - 166 times



 This Journal indexed by

                     

          

 

Creative Commons License
AMJ is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

 


View My Stats