Correlation between Anemia and Malaria Infection Severity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Nigeria

Adedeji David Atere, Henry Chijindu Okpoli, Kelvin Aimuemwosa Uwumarogie, Adebimpe Iyanuoluwa Moronkeji


Background: Malaria and diabetes mellitus are still a significant global public health problem despite the phenomenal progresses in clinical sciences related to the diseases. Both anemia and malaria parasitemia are common in developing countries. It is therefore important to diagnose and determine the correlation between anemia level and malaria infection severity in diabetic patients for better management. 

Methods: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) infected with malaria were recruited (n=50) as subjects and non-diabetic patients were used as control in this study, who were further divided into two sub-group: non-DM infected with malaria (n=25) and non-DM without malaria parasitemia (n=25). Blood sample were collected to examine the fasting blood sugar (FBS) level, packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) level, and malaria parasitemia. Statistical analysis was then performed using ANOVA with a p value of less than or equal to 0.05 considered statistically significant.

Results: The parasite density in DM with malaria was significantly lower (p<0.05) than in the non-DM with malaria. Interestingly, there was a higher PCV and hemoglobin level (p<0.05) in DM with malaria when compared with non-DM with malaria.

Conclusion: DM patients infected with plasmodium have low parasite density but higher hemoglobin level and PCV compared to the control group. There is no correlation between the severity of anemia and malaria parasitemia in DM patients infected with malaria when compared to non-diabetic subjects infected with malaria. Further studies are needed to explore the correlation between hemoglobin level in DM and plasmodium infection


Anemia, hemoglobin, hyperglycemia, malaria, parasitemia

Full Text:



World Health Organization (WHO).Word malaria report 2017. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.

World Health Organization (WHO). Fact Sheet: World Malaria Report 2016; 2016.

Atere AD, Akinbo DB, Abiodun OP, Okpoli HC. Blood Pressure and Plasma Levels of Blood Glucose among Subjects Screening by Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test in Indigenous Area, Ondo State. JAMPS. 2017; 13(4):1-7.

Ogbera AO, Ekpebegh C. Diabetes mellitus in Nigeria: The past, present and future. World J Diabetes. 2014; 5(6): 905-911. DOI:

World Health Organization (WHO). Diabetes Mellitus and its complications. Report of WHO consultation (part 1): Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus; 1999, 99 (2):1-58.

Fadairo JK, Atere AD, Ogidiolu TO, Abiodun OP. Assessment of some coagulation indices among type II diabetic subjects in a tertiary facility in South West Region, Nigeria. IOSR-JDMS. 2016; 15(6):159-163.

Atere AD, Ale BG, Adejumo BI, Abiodun OP, Solomon UC. Correlation between oxidative stress markers and atherogenic indices in type 2 diabetes mellitus. JSRR. 2016; 12(4): 1-9.

Madhura NS, Kowsalya R. Assessment of serum Ferritin level and its correlation with HbA1c in Diabetic Nephropathy. AJMS. 2020; 11(2): 46-51.

Gautier JF, Sobngwi E, Mauvais-Jarvis F. Diabetes in African epidemiology and clinical specificities. Diabetes Metabolism. 2001; 27: 628-632.

Eze EM, Ezeiruaku F, Ukaji D. Experiential relationship between malaria parasite density and some haematological parameters in malaria infected male subjects in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Glob J Health Sci. 2012; 4(4): 139–148.

WHO. World Malaria Report 2018. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization. 2018(, accessed March 2019).

Gitonga CW, Edwards T, Karanja PN, Noor AM, Snow RW, Brooker SJ. Plasmodium infection, anaemia and mosquito net use among school children across different settings in Kenya. Trop Med Int Health. 2012;17:858–870.

Burgmann H, Looareesuwan S, Kapiotis S, Viravan C, Vanijanonta S, Hollenstein U, et al. Serum levels of erythropoietin in acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1996; 54:280–3.

Maiese K. Erythropoietin and diabetes mellitus. World J Diabetes. 2015; 6(14): 1259–1273.

White NJ. Anaemia and malaria. Malar J. 2018; 17: 1-17.

Chessbrough M. Colorimetric glucose estimation/method. United Kingdom: Cambridge Universuty Press; 2009, pg. 343.

Cheesbrough, M. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; 1998.

WHO, Basic Malaria Microscopy: Part I Learner’s Guide, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1991.

Al-Salahy M, Shnawa B, Abed G, Mandour A, Al-Ezzi A. Parasitaemia and Its Relation to Hematological Parameters and Liver Function among Patients Malaria in Abs, Hajjah, Northwest Yemen. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases; 2016: 1-5

Kalra S, Khandelwal D, Singla R, Aggarwal S, Dutta D. Malaria and diabetes. JPMA. 2017, 67(5):810-813.

Sakwe N, Bigoga J, Ngondi J, Njeambosay B, Esemu L, Kouambeng C, et al. Relationship between malaria, anaemia, nutritional and socio-economic status amongst under-ten children, in the North Region of Cameroon: A cross-sectional assessment. PLoS ONE. 2019; 14(6): e0218442.

Sakzabre D, Asiamah EA, Akorsu EE, Abaka-Yawson A , Dei Dika N, Kwasie DA, et al. Haematological Profile of Adults with Malaria Parasitaemia Visiting the Volta Regional Hospital, Ghana. Advances in Hematology; 2020: 1-6.

Ndiok EO, Ohimain EI, Izah SC. Incidence of malaria in type 2 diabetic patients and the effect on the liver: a case study of Bayelsa State. J. Mosq Res. 201 6(15): 1-8.

O’Hara JK, Kerwin LJ, Cobbold SA, Tai J, Bedell TA, et al. Targeting NAD+ Metabolism in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum. PLoS ONE6. 2014; 9(4):e94061.

Patade GR, Marita AR. Metformin: A Journey from countryside to the bedside. J Obesity Metabolic Res. 2014; 1: 127.

Casqueiro J, Casqueiro J, Alves C. Infections in patients with diabetes mellitus: A review of pathogenesis. Indian J Endocr Metab. 2012; 16: 27-36.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 714 times
PDF - 301 times

 This Journal indexed by




Creative Commons License
AMJ is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License


View My Stats