Serum Trace Elements and Antioxidant Vitamins among Male Patients with Prostate Disorders in the Delta Region of Nigeria

Bhaguetai Joseph Aghawegbehe, Adedeji David Atere, David Bolaji Akinbo, Olumide Faith Ajani, Raphael Usiosefe Erhunmwunse


Background: Prostate cancer remains the commonest form of cancer among Nigerian males, constituting 13.3% of all male cancers encountered in this region. Trace elements and antioxidant vitamins may be of epidemiological significance in the early prediction and treatment of prostate complications. The study aimed to explore the serum trace elements, antioxidant vitamins concentration and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) among male with prostate disorders in the delta region of Nigeria.

Methods: Blood specimens were collected from males with symptoms of prostatitis (n=70), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH; n=60) and prostate cancer (PCa; n=70), alongside with apparently healthy male subjects (n=60). The levels of trace elements and antioxidant vitamins were evaluated. Fluorescence immunoassay technique was used to assess the expression of PSA.

Results: Compared with the controls, PCa patients had a significantly increased level of vitamin A (p<0.05), however, no significant differences in the serum levels of trace elements and antioxidant vitamins between subjects with prostate disorders and control group (p>0.05). Interestingly, there was a significant positive correlation between prostate specific antigen, trace elements and vitamins in BPH group (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Prostate disorders such as prostatitis, BPH and PCa may be associated with elevated levels of PSA, but, does not affect the circulating expression of some serum trace elements and antioxidant vitamins.



Antioxidants, prostate disorder, prostate specific antigen, trace elements

Full Text:



Bracarda S, de Cobelli O, Greco C, Prayer-Galleti T, Valdagni R, Gatta G, et al. Cancer of the prostate. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2005;56(3):379–96.

Kaba M, Pirincci N, Yuksel MB, Gecit I, Gunes M, Ozveren H, et al. Serum levels of trace elements in patients with prostate cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(6):2625–9.

Onyema-iloh BO, Meludu, SC, Iloh E, Nnodim J, Onyegbule O, Mykembata B. Biochemical changes in some trace elements, antioxidant vitamins and their therapeutic importance in prostate cancer patients. Asian Journal of Medical Science. 2015;6(1):95–7.

Adedapo KS, Arinola OG, Shittu OB, Kareem OI, Okolo CA, Nwobi LN. Diagnostic value of lipids, total antioxidants, and trace metals in benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Niger J Clin Pract. 2012;15(3):293–7.

Cedars MI, Taymans SE, DePaolo LV, Warner L, Moss SB, Eisenberg ML. The sixth vital sign: what reproduction tells us about overall health. Proceedings from a NICHD/CDC workshop. Hum Reprod Open. 2017;2017(2):hox008

Kolawole AO. Feasible cancer control strategies for Nigeria: mini-review. American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health. 2011;1(1):1–10.

Duru R, Njoku O and Maduka I. Oxidative stress iIndicators in patients with prostate disorders in Enugu, South-East Nigeria. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:313015.

Ezenwa EV, Tijani KH, Jeje A, Ogunjimi A, Ojewola, R. Prevalence of Prostate Cancer among Nigerians with Intermediate Total Prostate Specific Antigen Levels (4-10ng/Ml): Experience at Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The Internet Journal of Urology. 2012;9(3):1–5.

Pérez-Ibave DC, Burciaga-Flores CH, Elizondo-Riojas MÁ. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a possible biomarker in non-prostatic cancer: A review. Cancer Epidemiol. 2018;54:48–55.

Zaichick V, Zaichick S. Ratios of selenium/trace element contents in prostate gland as carcinoma’s markers. J Tumor Med Prev. 2017;1(2):1–12.

Navarro SA, Rohan TE. Trace elements and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Cancer Causes Control. 2007;18(1):7–27.

Demir C, Demir H, Esen R, Sehitogullari A, Atmaca M, Alay M. Altered serum levels of elements in acute leukemia cases in Turkey. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12912):3471–4.

Geraki K, Farquharson MJ, Bradley DA. Concentrations of Fe, Cu and Zn in breast tissue: a synchrotron XRF study. Phys Med Biol. 2002;47(13):2327–39.

Mahabir S, Spitz MR, Barrera SL, Beaver SH, Etzel C, Forman MR. Dietary zinc, copper and selenium and risk of lung cancer. Intl J of Cancer. 2007; 120(5):1108–15.

Zowczak M, Iskra M, Torlinski L, Cofta S. Analysis of serum copper and zinc concentration in cancer patients. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2001;82(1–3): 1–8.

Adaramoye OA, Akinloye O, Olatunji IK. Trace elements and Vitamin E status in Nigerian patients with prostate cancer. Afr Health Sci. 2010;10(1):2–8

Mondul AM, Watters JL, Mannisto S, Weinstein SJ, Snyder K, Virtamo J, et al. Serum retinol and risk of prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 2011;173(7):813–21.

Huang Y, Wu R, Su ZY, Guo Y, Zheng X, Yang CS, et al. A naturally occurring mixture of tocotrienols inhibits the growth of human prostate tumor, associated with epigenetic modifications of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27. J Nutr Biochem. 2017;40:155–63.

Donkena KV, Karnes RJ, Young CYF. Vitamins and prostate cancer risk. Molecules. 2010;15(3):1762–83.

Vardhan SP, Krishnamma M, Naidu JN, Naidu MP. Study of insulin resistance and antioxidant vitamin status in prostate cancer patients. International Journal of Medical Science. 2014;2(2):643–6.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 390 times
PDF - 291 times

 This Journal indexed by




Creative Commons License
AMJ is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License


View My Stats