Characteristics of Hypertension in Children at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung in January to December 2014

Meilani Meilani, Nanan Sekarwana, Yuni Susanti Pratiwi


Background: Hypertension is often found in children. It could cause serious complications and added risk of hypertension in adulthood. Hypertension in children is likely secondary type and some of them might be severe. The aim of this study was to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of hypertension in children admitted to Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung in January to December 2014.

Methods: The study design used was a quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from medical records retrospectively of inpatient children from the period January to December 2014. Data were collected from the period  September to November 2015 based on age and gender as a demographic characteristics and stage of hypertension, etiology of hypertension, and emerge of hypertensioncomplication as a clinical characteristics.

Results: Ninety(1.9%)children with hypertension were found from 4,681 of total inpatient children consisting of 58 males and 32 females with median of age 8 (0−13) years old.The main stage of hypertension was hypertension stage 2 with 55 cases and nephrotic syndrome as the most common causes with 43 cases. The complications were present in hypertension stage 2 with 3 cases and hypertensive crisis with 2 cases.

Conclusions: Children with hypertension are most commonly males and median of age was 8 years old. Hypertension is characterized by hypertension stage 2 and nephrotic syndrome as the most common etiology. Complications of hypertension appear in severe hypertension.


Nephrotic syndrome; pediatric hypertension; secondary hypertension

Full Text:



Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Riset kesehatan dasar. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan RI;2013.

National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescent. The Fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescent. Pediatrics; 2004. p. 555−76.

Chen X, Wang Y. Tracking of blood pressure from childhood to adulthood: a systematic review and meta–regression analysis. Circulation. 2008;117(25):3171−80.

Lo JC, Sinaiko A, Chandra M, Daley MF, Greenspan LC, Parker ED, et al. prehypertension and hypertension in community-based pediatric practice. Pediatrics. 2013;131(2):415−24.

Gomes R, Quirino I, Pereira R, Vitor B, Leite A, Oliveira E, et al. Primary versus secondary hypertension in children followed up at an outpatient tertiary unit. Pediatr Nephrol. 2011;26(3):441−7.

Bajracharya P, Olivera M, Kapur G. Epidemiology of secondary hypertension in children. Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports. 2014;8(7):1−9.

Haris Syafruddin, Dimiati Herlina, Anwar M.Sidqi. Profil hipertensi pada anak di RSUD Dr. Zainoel Abidin Banda Aceh. Sari Pediatri. 2013;15(2):105−10.

Pungky AK, Damanik MP. Hipertensi pada anak di RS Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta. Berita Kedokteran Masyarakat. 2006;22(3):124−7.

Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N, Margono C et al. Global, regional and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults 1980−2013: a systematic analysis. Lancet. 2014;384(9945):766−81.

Bijlsma MW, Blufpand HN, Kaspers GJL, Bökenkamp A. Why pediatricians fail to diagnose hypertension: amulticenter survey. The Journal of pediatrics. 2014;164(1):173−7.e7.

Tran CL, Ehrmann BJ, Messer KL, Herreshoff E, Kroeker A, Wickman L, et al. Recent trends in healthcare utilization among children and adolescents with hypertension in the united states. Hypertension. 2012;60(2):296−302.

Yang W-C, Wu H-P. Clinical analysis of hypertension in children admitted to the emergency department. Pediatrics & Neonatology. 2010;51(1):44−51.

Kanjanabuch T, Kittikowit W, Eiam-Ong S. An update on acute postinfectious glomerulonephritis worldwide. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2009;5(5):259−69.

Mong Hiep T, Ismaili K, Collart F, Van Damme-Lombaerts R, Godefroid N, Ghuysen MS, et al. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of children with stage 3–5 chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol. 2010;25(5):935−40.

Wong H, Mylrea K, Feber J, Drukker A, Filler G. Prevalence of complications in children with chronic kidney disease according to KDOQI. Kidney Int. 2006;70(3):585−90.

Juliansen Andry, Andriastuti Murti, Pardede Sudung O, Sekartini Rini. Hypertension, high-dose corticosteroids, and renal infiltration in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Paediatr Indones. 2014;54(6):372−6.

 This Journal indexed by


Creative Commons License
AMJ is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License


View My Stats