Perbandingan Efek Pemberian Cairan Kristaloid Sebelum Tindakan Anestesi Spinal (Preload) dan Sesaat Setelah Anestesi Spinal (Coload) terhadap Kejadian Hipotensi Maternal pada Seksio Sesarea

Zaki Fikran, Doddy Tavianto, Tinni T. Maskoen

Abstract


Pemberian cairan secara preload sebagai profilaksis sebelum anestesi spinal telah menjadi prosedur rutin untuk mencegah hipotensi ibu selama tindakan seksio sesarea. Tidak seperti koloid, waktu pemberian cairan kristaloid merupakan hal penting karena singkatnya waktu cairan kristaloid berada di ruang intravaskular. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh waktu pemberian cairan kristaloid terutama Ringerfundin yang lebih baik antara preload dibanding dengan coload dalam mencegah hipotensi maternal selama anestesi spinal pada seksio sesarea. Penelitian dilakukan di Central Operating Theatre (COT) Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung periode Juni−Juli 2015 dengan uji klinis acak tersamar tunggal terhadap 36 pasien yang menjalani seksio sesarea dengan status fisik American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) II. Kejadian hipotensi dinilai setelah pemberian anestesi spinal sampai bayi lahir. Data hasil penelitian dianalisis dengan uji-t, Uji Mann-Whitney, dan uji chi-kuadrat dengan nilai p<0,05 dianggap bermakna. Insidens hipotensi lebih rendah pada kelompok kristaloid coload dibanding dengan kelompok kristaloid preload (44,4% vs 77,8%; p=0,040). Simpulan penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pemberian cairan kristaloid secara coload lebih efektif daripada preload untuk pencegahan hipotensi maternal setelah anestesi spinal pada seksio sesarea.

Kata kunci: Anestesi spinal, hipotensi, kristaloid, seksio sesarea

Comparison of the Effect of Crystalloids Fluid Provision Before Spinal Anesthesia (Preload) and Shortly after Spinal Anesthesia (Co-load) on Maternal Hypotension Incidence in Caesarean Delivery

Prophylactic fluid as a preload before spinal anesthesia has been a routine procedure to prevent maternal hypotension during cesarean delivery. Unlike colloid, timing of infusion of crystalloid may be important because it has short linger time in the intravascular space. This study aimed to compare the effect of the timing of administration of crystalloid, especially Ringerfundin, which is more effective between preload and co-load in preventing maternal hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. This study was performed at the Central Operating Theatre (COT) of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung in June−July 2015 using the single blind randomized controlled trial method on 36 patients who underwent caesarean section with American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) II physical status. The incidence of hypotension was observed starting from the time the spinal anesthesia was performed to the time when the baby was born. Data were analyzed statistically using t-test, Mann Whitney test, and chi-square test where a p value of <0.05 considered significant. The incidence of hypotension was lower in the co-load group when compared to the preload group (44.4% vs. 77.8%, p value=0.040). In conclusion, the use of crystalloids for cesarean delivery in co-loading manner is more effective than preloading for the prevention of maternal hypotension after spinal anesthesia.

Key words: Cesarean delivery, crystalloid, hypotension, spinal anesthesia

 

DOI: 10.15851/jap.v4n2.818


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