Penggunaan Skor Apfel Sebagai Prediktor Kejadian Mual dan Muntah Pascaoperasi di RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung

Rachmad Try Hendro, Erwin Pradian, Indriasari Indriasari

Abstract


Post operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) merupakan kejadian mual dan atau muntah setelah tindakan operasi menggunakan anestesi pada 24 jam pertama pascaoperasi. Kejadian PONV dilaporkan memiliki perbedaan pada berbagai bangsa dan etnis. Skor Apfel merupakan salah satu prediktor PONV yang objektif dan paling sederhana. Sebelum menggunakannya sebagai prosedur rutin di RSHS, dilakukan penelitian ini yang bertujuan menilai apakah skor Apfel dapat digunakan sebagai prediktor PONV pada pasien yang menjalani operasi dengan anestesi umum di RSHS. Dilakukan suatu studi diagnostik secara potong lintang pada 100 pasien yang menjalani operasi elektif dengan anestesi umum di RSHS pada bulan September–Oktober 2017. Subjek penelitian dikelompokkan dalam 5 kelompok skor Apfel, yaitu perempuan, tidak merokok, menggunakan opioid pascaoperasi, dan memiliki riwayat PONV sebelumnya. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan terdapat 42% angka kejadian PONV, terdiri atas skor Apfel 0 (8,3%), skor 1 (19,04%), skor 2 (36,6%), skor 3 (63,63%), dan skor 4 (80%) yang sesuai dengan nilai prediktif skor Apfel. Angka kejadian PONV pada skor Apfel risiko tinggi (≥3) 61,9%, bermakna secara signifikan dapat membedakan kejadian PONV dengan nilai sensitivitas 61,9%, spesifisitas 81,0%, dan nilai AUC 0,777. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa skor Apfel memiliki validitas yang baik untuk membedakan antara pasien yang akan mengalami PONV dan yang tidak. Simpulan penelitian ini, skor Apfel dapat dipakai untuk memprediksi kejadian PONV di RSHS.

Kata kunci: Post operative nausea and vomiting, prediktor, skor Apfel, validitas

 

Use of Apfel Score as a Predictor for Post-Post-operative Nausea and Vomiting in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital

Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is defined as any nausea, retching, or vomiting that occurs  during the first 24 hour after surgery. Previous studies have reported that nationality and ethnicity influence the incidence of PONV. Apfel score is one of the objective and best simplified predicting PONV scoring systems available. Until recently, no predicting PONV score is used in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital (RSHS). Before implementing any scoring system as a protocol in this hospital, validation of the clinical risk assessment score in the hospital setu is needed. This was a cross-sectional diagnostic study on 100 patients underwentpost- various elective surgeries under general anesthesia. Subjects were divided into five groups, based on the Apfel risk scoring system. Factors observed consisted of four factors: female gender, nonsmoking status, post-operative use of opioids, and history of PONV or motion sickness. The results  were analyzed for total incidence of PONV in each Apfel score group. Of 100 patients assessed, a total of 42% experienced PONV. Patients  in Apfel score 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 presented a PONV incidence score of 8.3%, 19.04%, 36.6%, 63.63%, and 80%, respectively. This incidence corresponds to the previous predicted values Apfel score. The incidence of PONV in patients  under high risk Apfel score (≥3) was 61.9%, showing a significant correlation with PONV. The sensitivity was 61.9%, the specificity was 81.0%, and the AUC value was 0.777. This confirms that Apfel score has good validity to predict the incidence of PONV. In conclusion, Apfel scoring system is useful for identifying patients with PONV in RSHS.

Key words: Apfel score, post-post-operative nausea and vomiting, predictor, validity


Keywords


Post operative nausea and vomiting, prediktor, skor Apfel, validitas

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15851/jap.v6n2.1425

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