Social Determinant Factors of Elderly as an Input in Enhancing Primary Health Care in Indonesia

Sharon Gondodiputro, Henni Djuhaeni

Abstract


Objective: To analyze the differences of social determinant factors among elderly according to gender, in urban and rural areas in Indonesia. Indonesia is one of the most populated countries in the world,  faces an increased number of elderly. This situation leads to the increase of degenerative diseases and demands of caregivers as well. The identification of social determinant factors of elderly has an important role in enhancing primary health care.

Methods: A comparative study was carried out in 33 provinces in Indonesia using secondary data from Statistics Indonesia 2013. The variables included in this study were percentage of elderly according to  education, marital status, occupation, income and living arrangements, divided in gender, urban and rural areas.  The normally distributed data were analyzed using unpaired T test and not normally distributed data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test.

 Results: This study showed that there were differences in education, occupation and income between urban and rural areas. In urban area, most of the elderly worked in industry and trade and in rural area they worked in agricultural, indicated huge risks of occupational haxards.  Most of them were poor, still married, lived with spouses and family of three generations.

Conclusions: It can be concluded that there were differences of social determinant factors (education, occupation and income) in elderly who live in urban and rural areas that can contribute to the risks of disease in elderly and these situations must be considered as an input  to enhance the primary health care.

Keywords: Elderly, gender, rural, social determinants, urban

 

DOI: 10.15850/ijihs.v6n2.1378


Keywords


Elderly, gender, rural, social determinants, urban

Full Text:

PDF

References


Statistics Indonesia. Population projection 2010–2035. Jakarta: Statistics Indonesia; 2013.

Wang HH, Wang JJ, Wong SYS, Wong MCS, Li FJ, Wang PK et al. Epidemiology of multimorbidity in China and implications for the healthcare system: cross-sectional survey among 162,464 community household residents in Southern China. BMC Med. 2014;12(188):1–12.

Pati S, Agrawal S, Swain S, Lee JT, Vellakkal S, Hussain MA, et al. Non communicable disease multimorbidity and associated health care utilization and expenditures in India: cross-sectional study. BMC Health Service Res. 2014;14(451):1–9.

Amrina Rosyada, Indang Trihandini. Determinan komplikasi kronik diabetes mellitus pada lanjut usia. J Kese Masyarakat Nasional. 2013;7(9):395–401.

Viner RM, Ozer EM, Denny S, Marmot M, Resnick M, Fatusi A, et al. Adolescence and the social determinants of health. Lancet. 2012;379(9826):1641–52.

Rasanathan K, Montesino EV, Matheson D, Etienn C, Evans T. Primary health care and the social determinants of health: essential and complementary approaches for reducing inequities in health. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011;65(8):656–60.

Firman T. The continuity and change in mega-urbanization in Indonesia: A survey of Jakarta–Bandung Region (JBR) development. Habitat International. 2009;33(4):327–39.

Kreager P, Schröder-Butterfill E. Age-structural transition in Indonesia: a comparison of macro- and micro-level evidence. Asian Popul Stud. 2010;6(1):25-45.

Bostock S, Steptoe A. Association between low functional health literacy and mortality in older adults: longitudinal cohort study. BMJ. [serial on the internet] 2012 Mar [cited 2018 Jan 21];2012:(344):[about 10p.]. Available from: https://www.bmj.com/content/344/bmj.e1602.long.

Berkman N, Sheridan SL, Donahue KE, Halpern DJ, Crotty K. Low health literacy and health outcomes: an updated systematic (review). Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(2):97–107.

Mason RS, Reichrath J. Sunlight vitamin D and skin cancer. Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2012;13(1):83–97.

Hossein-nezhad A, Holic MF. Vitamin D for health: a global perspective. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013;88(7):720–55.

Evans JE, Johnson EJ. The role of phytonutrients in skin health. Nutrients. 2010;2(8):903–28.

Bethel JW, Harger R. Heat-related illness among Oregon farmworkers. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014;11(9):9273–85.

Alavanja MCR, Hofmann JN, Lynch CF, Hines CJ, Barry KH,, Barker J, et al. Non-hodgkin lymphoma: risk and insecticide, fungicide and fumigant use in the agricultural health study. Plos one [serial on the internet] 2014 Oct [cited 2018 Jan 21];9:(10):[about 17p.]. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0109332.

Neitzel RL, Krenz J, de Castro AB. Safety and health hazard observations in Hmong farming operations. J Agromedicine. 2014;19(2):130–149.

Priebe J, Howell F. Old-age poverty in Indonesia. a role for social pensions. Jakarta: Tim Nasional Percepatan Penanggulangan Kemiskinan; 2014.

Witoelar F. Household dynamics and living arrangements of the elderly in Indonesia: evidence from a longitudinal survey. In: Smith JP, Majmundar JP, editors. Aging in Asia: findings from new and emerging data initiatives. USA: National Academy of Sciences; 2012.

Kamel AMA. Who are the elder’s caregivers in Jordan: A cross-sectional study. J Nurs Edu Pract. 2016;6(3):116–21.






This journal indexed by:

              

  

Creative Commons License
IJIHS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License



View My Stats