Three-Year Study of Geriatric Skeletal Muscle Strength at a Top Referral General Hospital, West Java, Indonesi

Sigop Elliot Parsaulian Lumbantoruan, Vitriana Vitriana, Lazuardhi Dwipa


Background: One of the aging effects is the decrease of skeletal muscle strength. The objectives of this study was to analyze the geriatric skeletal muscle strength by hand grip strength according to the characteristics of the elderly.

Methods: An analytic retrospective study was carried out to 99 medical records of elderly who sought medication at the Geriatric policlinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital as the top referral hospital in West Java, Indonesia from 2012–2014. The result of hand grip strength measurement were grouped based on the characteristics of gender, age, body mass index (BMI), Barthel Index score, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score, number of disease and number of medication. All data were taken from patient’s medical records. The collected data were statistically analyzed with unpaired T-test and one way ANOVA test.

Results: Among the 99 subjects, most of the subjects were male, under 80 years old,   independent living persons, had normal BMI, and normal nutritional level according to Mini Nutritional Assessment. Most of the subjects had more than 3 diseases per person and less than 5 sorts of medication. Male had higher hand grip strength compared to female and it was statistically significant (p=0.04). Based on ADL score, Independent living had higher hand grip strength compared to other level (p=0.008).

Conclusions: From all the variables measured, only gender and  Activity Daily Living level contibute to the hand grip strength.



Elderly, hand grip strength, muscle strength

Full Text:



Badan Pusat Statistik Indonesia. Perkembangan beberapa indikator utama sosial-ekonomi Indonesia Mei 2013. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik; 2013. p.14–5.

Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Gambaran kesehatan lanjut usia di Indonesia. Buletin Jendela Data dan Informasi Kesehatan. 2013; Semester I:1–18.

Miller RA. Biology of aging and longevity. In: Halter JB, Ouslander JG, Tinetti ME, Studenski S, High KP, Asthana S. Hazzard’s geriatric medicine and gerontology. 6th ed. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies; 2009. p. 3–4.

Jones TE, Stephenson KW, King JG, Knight KR, Marshall TL, Scott WB. Sarcopenia–mechanisms and treatments. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2009;32(2):83–9.

Wind AE, Takken T, Helders PJ, Engelbert RH. Is grip strength a predictor for total muscle strength in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults. Eur J Pediatr. 2010;169(3):281–7.

Andri, Damping CE. Peranan psikiatri geriatri dalam penanganan delirium pasien geriatri. Maj Kedokt Indon. 2007;57(7):227–32.

Chen LK, Liu LK, Woo J, Assantachai P, Auyeung TW, Bahyah KS, et al. Sarcopenia in Asia: consensus report of the asian working group for sarcopenia. JAMA. 2014;15:95–101.

Houlden H, Edwards M, McNeil J, Greenwood R. Use of the barthel index and the functional independence measure during early inpatient rehabilitation after single incident brain injury. Clin Rehabil. 2006;20(2):153–9.

Tsai AC, Hsu H-Y, Chang T-L. The mini nutritional assessment (MNA) is useful for assessing the risk of malnutrition in adults with intellectual disabilities. J Clin Nurs. 2011;20(23–24):3295–303.

Kubota H, Demura S. Gender differences and laterality in maximal handgrip strength and controlled force exertion in young adults. Health. 2011;3(11):684–88.

Putu Putrawan IB, Tuty Kuswardhani RA. Faktor-faktor yang menentukan kekuatan genggaman tangan pada pasien lanjut usia di panti wredha Tangtu dan poliklinik geriatri RSUP Sanglah, Denpasar. J Peny Dalam. 2009;12(2):87–91

Lang TF. The bone-muscle relationship in men and women. J Osteoporos. 2011;2011:702735.

Vianna LC, Oliveira RB, Araujo CG. Age-related decline in handgrip strength differs according to gender. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(4):1310–4.

Lad UP, Satyanarayana P, Shisode-Lad S, Siri Ch C, Kumari NR. A study on the correlation between the body mass index (BMI), the body fat percentage, the handgrip strength and the handgrip endurance in underweight, normal weight and overweight adolescents. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013;7(1):51–4.

Cuesta-Vargas, Pérez-Cruzado D. Relationship between barthel index with physical tests in adults with intellectual disabilities. Springerplus. 2014;3:543.

Taekema DG, Gussekloo J, Maier AB, Westendorp RG, de Craen AJ. Handgrip strength as a predictor of functional, psychological and social health. A prospective population-based study among the oldest old. Age Ageing. 2010;39(3):331–7.

I Wayan Ambartana. Hubungan status gizi dengan kekuatan otot lanjut usia di kelurahan Gianyar, kabupaten Gianyar, provinsi Bali. JIG. 2010;1(1):67–74.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


This Journal indexed by:



Creative Commons License
AMJ is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License


View My Stats