Gambaran Partisipasi Masyarakat terhadap Pengendalian Vektor Melalui Kajian Tempat Perkembangbiakan Aedes aegypti di Kota Bandung

Lia Faridah, Titik Respati, Sunarjati Sudigdoadi, Hadyana Sukandar

Abstract


Pada tahun 2014, Bandung memiliki angka kasus demam dengue (DD) tertinggi dari 27 kabupaten/kota di Jawa Barat. Upaya pengendalian DD telah dilaksanakan sejak beberapa dekade yang lalu. Salah satu upaya adalah dengan mengeliminasi tempat perkembangbiakan nyamuk melalui peran serta masyarakat. Penelitian ini bertujuan menilai partisipasi masyarakat Kota Bandung dengan mengetahui tempat-tempat perkembangbiakan Aedes aegypti baik di dalam maupun di luar rumah. Sampling dilakukan di 16 kelurahan di Kota Bandung yang telah dipilih berdasar atas angka kejadian DD, kepadatan penduduk, ketinggian permukaan, dan status sosial-ekonomi periode 2015. Populasi penelitian adalah rumah-rumah yang terdapat di 16 kelurahan tersebut. Jumlah sampel penelitian ini adalah 1.983 rumah yang merupakan perwakilan dari tiap kelurahan. Sampling jentik dilakukan pada berbagai tempat penampungan air, baik penampungan alami maupun buatan di sekitar pemukiman penduduk. Jentik yang ditemukan dimasukkan ke dalam wadah dan dibawa ke laboratorium untuk diidentifikasi dan dihitung jumlahnya. Hasil menunjukkan tempat perkembangbiakan nyamuk yang paling dominan adalah bak mandi (50%), talang air (24%), dan dispenser (15%). Data entomologi diperoleh hasil House index (HI) 24%, Container index (CI) 12%, dan Breteau index (BI) 36%. Hasil tersebut menunjukkan masih kurangnya peran serta masyarakat untuk mencegah DD dengan membasmi tempat perkembangbiakannya dan Kota Bandung masih berpotensi untuk terjadi penyebaran penyakit DD. [MKB. 2016;49(1):42–7]

Kata kunci: Aedes aegypti, Bandung, demam dengue, tempat perkembangbiakan, partisipasi masyarakat

 

Community Participation on Vector Control Based on Aedes aegypti’s Breeding Sites in Bandung

In 2014, Bandung has the highest number of Dengue Fever cases of 27 districts and cities in West Java. Dengue Fever control efforts have been implemented for several decades. One of the efforts is the eradication of the vector breeding site with community participation. The aim of this study was to assess community participation by identifying Aedes aegypti’s breeding sites, both indoor and outdoor, in Bandung area. Sampling was conducted on houses in 16 villages throughout Bandung area. The sampling points were selected according to the Dengue Fever event number, population density, height, and socio-economic status. The total sample points were 1983 houses. Larvae from sample points were collected from various water containments, both natural and manmade, around the settlement. The larvae samples were then brought to the laboratory to be identified and counted. Results indicated the dominant breeding sites were bathtub (50%), gutter (24%), and dispenser (15%). Entomological survey resulted in 24% HI, 12% CI, and 36% BI. This indicates the lack of community participation in preventing DF by eradicating vector’s breeding sites and Bandung is still potential for DF outbreak. [MKB. 2016;49(1):42–7]

Key words: Aedes aegypti, Bandung, breeding site, dengue fever, community pasticipation


DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v49n1.986


Keywords


Aedes aegypti, Bandung, demam dengue, tempat perkembangbiakan, partisipasi masyarakat

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