Hubungan antara Gejala Gangguan Depresi dan Tension-Type Headache (TTH): Studi Eksploratif

Cecilia J. Setiawan, Henny Anggraini Sadeli, Tuti Wahmurti A. Sapiie

Abstract


Prevalensi gangguan depresi semakin meningkat, termasuk yang berkomorbiditas dengan penyakit fisik. Kondisi medik yang telah lama dikaitkan dengan gangguan depresi adalah tension-type headache (TTH). Komorbiditas ini berhubungan dengan perjalanan penyakit TTH kronik. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui gejala gangguan depresi yang paling banyak terjadi pada penderita TTH serta menganalisis hubungan antara gejala tersebut dan tipe TTH yang dialaminya. Penelitian ini merupakan studi potong lintang terhadap 32 penderita TTH yang berobat jalan ke Instalasi Rawat Jalan Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Saraf Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung selama bulan November hingga Desember 2011 yang didiagnosis gangguan depresi. Subjek diperiksa dengan menggunakan instrumen Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Analisis korelasi dilakukan antara skor gejala gangguan depresi yang paling banyak terjadi dengan tipe TTH, dilanjutkan dengan analisis multivariabel untuk mencari rasio prevalens gejala gangguan depresi yang berkorelasi dengan tipe TTH. Angka kejadian gangguan depresi pada TTH didapatkan pada 32/38 penderita, sedangkan gejala gangguan depresi yang paling banyak ditemukan adalah suasana perasaan depresif, kelelahan/berkurangnya minat, dan ansietas psikis. Suasana perasaan depresif dan kelelahan/berkurangnya minat berkorelasi positif dengan tipe TTH (rs=0,411; p=0,019 dan rs=0,379; p=0,032). Dari analisis regresi logistik, hanya suasana perasaan depresif yang meningkatkan risiko TTH kronik, yaitu sebesar 4,74 kali (IK 95% 1,24–18,02). Simpulan, suasana perasaan depresif merupakan gejala yang paling banyak terjadi dan dapat digunakan untuk penapisan dini gangguan depresi pada penderita TTH serta meningkatkan risiko TTH
kronik. [MKB. 2013;45(1):28–34]

Kata kunci: Gangguan depresi, gejala gangguan depresi, tension-type headache


Relationship between Depressive Disorder Symptoms and the Tension-Type Headache (TTH): An Explorative Study

The prevalence rate of depressive disorders is increasing, including those having comorbidity with physical illnesses. One of the medical conditions that has been related to depressive disorder is tension-type headache (TTH). This comorbidity is related to the chronic course of TTH. This research aims to know which kind of depressive symptoms are most frequently found in TTH patients and to analyze the correlation between those symptoms and the type of TTH. This was a cross sectional study on 32 TTH patients who visited the outpatient clinic of the Neurology Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung during the period of November to December 2011 and who were diagnosed as having depressive disorder. They were examined using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). We correlated the scores of depressive disorder symptoms with the type of TTH, followed by mutivariable analysis to find the prevalence ratio of depressive disorder symptoms which correlated with the type of TTH. The results showed the prevalence rate of depressive disorder in TTH was 32/38 patients while the most frequent depressive disorder symptoms of the subjects were depressive mood, fatigue and psychological anxiety. Depressive mood and fatigue were positively correlated with the type of TTH (rs=0.411, p=0.019 and rs=0.379, p=0.032). Logistic regression analysis showed that only depressive mood increased the risk
of chronic TTH with a prevalence ratio of 4.74 (IK 95% 1.24–18.02). In conclusions, depressive mood, which is the most frequent symptoms of depressive disorder, can be used in the early screening of depressive disorder in TTH patients and this symptom increased the risk of chronic TTH. [MKB. 2013;45(1):28–34]

Key words: Depressive disorder, depressive disorder symptoms, tension-type headache

 

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v45n1.92


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