Pengaruh Pemberian Jeruk dengan Nanas pada Kadar Malondialdehid Plasma Subjek Terpapar Polusi Gas Buang Kendaraan Bermotor

- Yusnita, Gaga Irawan Nugraha

Abstract


Faktor lingkungan seperti polusi udara akibat gas buang kendaraan bermotor dapat meningkatkan pembentukan radikal bebas di dalam tubuh. Hasil penelitian Departemen Teknik Lingkungan Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) pada Desember 2006 menunjukkan kecenderungan peninggian polusi udara antara lain terjadi di tempat yang menjadi pusat kemacetan khususnya di kawasan padat lalu lintas di Kota Bandung seperti di Jalan Merdeka. Kadar radikal bebas di dalam tubuh dapat diketahui dengan mengukur kadar malondialdehid (MDA) plasma. Antioksidan diperlukan untuk menangkal efek radikal bebas akibat polusi udara. Jeruk dan nanas merupakan sumber antioksidan. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui perbedaan pengaruh pemberian jeruk dengan nanas pada kadar MDA plasma subjek yang terpapar polusi gas buang kendaraan bermotor. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental terhadap 21 orang yang bekerja di Jalan Merdeka, berusia 20–40 tahun yang dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok yang dilakukan pada bulan Januari–Juli 2010. Kelompok pertama diberikan jeruk sebanyak 300 g selama 14 hari. Kelompok kedua diberikan nanas sebanyak 300 g selama 14 hari. Kelompok ketiga adalah kelompok kontrol. Kadar MDA plasma diukur sebelum dan setelah perlakuan. Data dianalisis dengan uji t berpasangan dan uji t tidak berpasangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penurunan kadar MDA plasma setelah pemberian jeruk (1,42±0,29 vs 0,68±0,29) (p<0,05) dan setelah pemberian nanas (0,73±0,20 vs 0,40±0,13) (p<0,05). Penurunan kadar MDA plasma setelah pemberian jeruk lebih besar daripada nanas (0,74 ± 0,33 vs 0,24 ± 0,24) (p<0,05). Simpulan, jeruk lebih besar dalam menurunkan kadar MDA plasma pada subjek yang terpapar polusi gas buang kendaraan bermotor daripada nanas. [MKB. 2013;45(2):91–7]

Kata kunci: Antioksidan, jeruk, malondialdehid plasma, nanas, polusi udara, radikal bebas

 

The Effects of Orange and Pineapple Supplementation on Plasma Malondialdehyde Concentration in Subject Exposed to Air Pollution

Environmental insults such as air polution from vehicle emission could increase generation of free radicals inside human body. A study conducted in December 2006 by the Department of Environmental Engineering Bandung Institute of Technology, revealed an increased tendency of air pollution production in certain areas in Bandung such as Jl. Merdeka where busy traffic frequently occurs. The amount of free radicals inside the body can be detected by measuring concentrations of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA). Antioxidants are needed to counteract the damaging effects of increased free radical formation due to air pollution insult. Pineapples and orange are antioxidant food sources. This study aims to find out the differences between orange and pineapple supplementation effects on plasma MDA concentration in subjects exposed to air pollution. The study is an experimental research concerning 21 subjects whom were working on Jl. Merdeka, page between 20--40 years old in January–July 2010. They were divided into three groups. The first group was given 300 grams of orange for 14 days. The second group was given 300 grams of pineapple for 14 days. The third group was the control group. Plasma MDA concentration was measured prior to and after the treatment. The data were analyzed using paired and independent t-test. The study revealed a lower plasma MDA concentration in subjects receiving orange (1.42±0.29 vs 0.68±0.29) (p<0.05) and in subjects receiving pineapple (0.73±0.20 vs0.40±0.13) (p<0.05). Plasma MDA concentration lowering effect of orange supplementation is greater than that of the pineapple supplementation (0.74±0.33 vs 0.24±0.24) (p<0.05). In conclusion, plasma MDA concentration
lowering effect of orange is greater than pineapple in subjects exposed to air pollution. [MKB. 2013;45(2):91–7]

Key words: Air pollution, antioxidant, free radicals, orange, pineapple, plasma malondialdehyde

 

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v45n2.90


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