Penggunaan Genogram dalam Deteksi Dini Faktor Risiko Penyakit Degeneratif dan Keganasan di Masyarakat

Nita Arisanti, Sharon Gondodiputro, Henni Djuhaeni

Abstract


Penyakit tidak menular (PTM) dapat dimulai sejak usia produktif. Umumnya masyarakat baru memeriksakan diri setelah timbul gejala, padahal deteksi dini penyakit penting dilakukan. Sebagian penyakit bersifat familial atau diturunkan yang dapat dideteksi dini dengan menggali riwayat penyakit individu dan keluarga. Genogram merupakan salah satu alat untuk menggali faktor risiko dalam keluarga. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui sejauh mana fungsi genogram dalam mendeteksi dini faktor risiko penyakit keganasan dan degeneratif. Penelitian kuantitatif dilakukan terhadap 231 pasien di puskesmas se-Kota Bandung. Kriteria inklusi adalah pengunjung puskesmas, berusia 18 tahun ke atas, kooperatif, dan bersedia diwawancara. Teknik pemilihan sampel menggunakan cluster sampling. Pengambilan data menggunakan kuesioner genogram yang mencatat faktor risiko PTM dari 3 generasi. Dilakukan analisis genogram dan disajikan dalam tabel distribusi frekuensi. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada bulan Agustus–September 2013. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, sebanyak 183 dari 231 responden mempunyai faktor risiko penyakit degeneratif dan keganasan yang tergambar dari genogram. Dari riwayat keluarga, penyakit terbanyak adalah hipertensi dan penyakit jantung yang didapatkan dari generasi bapak. Penelitian ini memperkuat penelitian mengenai fungsi genogram yang efektif untuk mendeteksi secara cepat faktor risiko penyakit degeneratif dan keganasan pada individu dan keluarga. [MKB. 2016;48(2):118–22]

Kata kunci: Degeneratif, deteksi dini, faktor risiko, genogram, keganasan

 

Genogram as An Early Detection Method for the Risk Factors of Degenerative Diseases and Malignanciesy in the Community


Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) can be found at young age and the people are not aware about the diseases. People seek medical care after symptoms occurred. Most of NCDs are familial or hereditaryy; hence, require family explorationin the detection that should be detected by exploring family history. Genogram is tool for describing multigenerational risks. The purpose of this study was to determine the functions of genogram in the early detection of risk factors for degenerative diseases and malignanciesy. A quantitative study was conducted on 231 patients who visited primary health centers (Puskesmas) in Bandung with the inclusion criteria were of patients at visited the selected Puskesmas, aged 18 years, and more, cooperative, and willing to be interviewed. Sampling technique used was cluster sampling. Data collecting were performed using questionnaires that recorded genogram and risk factors from three previous generations of the family. Interpretation of genogram was used to analyze the risk factors. This study was conducted from August to September 2013. The results showed that 183 of 231 respondents have risk factors for degenerative diseases and malignancies, which was reflected from the family genogram. Based on family history, most of respondents had have risk factors for hypertension and heart disease, specifically obtainedespecially from the father’s side.  from father’s generation. This research study confirms the results of previous research studystudies that the on the function of genogram that is effectiveo for in detecting the risk factors for degenerative diseases and malignancies in individuals and families in the community. [MKB. 2016;48(2):118–22]

Key words: Degenerative diseases, early detection, genogram, malignancy, risk factors

 

DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v48n2.452


Keywords


Degeneratif, deteksi dini, faktor risiko, genogram, keganasan

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