Prediktor Stres Keluarga Akibat Anggota Keluarganya Dirawat di General Intensive Care Unit

Zahara Farhan, Kusman Ibrahim, Aat Sriati

Abstract


Terdapat anggota keluarga yang dirawat di ruang perawatan intensif merupakan situasi yang dapat memicu stres pada keluarga. Faktor yang dapat memicu stres pada keluarga meliputi, perubahan lingkungan, aturan ruangan perawatan, perubahan status emosi keluarga, perubahan peran keluarga, perubahan kehidupan sehari-hari, perubahan finansial, serta sikap petugas kesehatan dalam pemberian informasi tentang kondisi kesehatan pasien. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan potong lintang. Subjek penelitian sebanyak 60 orang yang mewakili keluarga saat anggota keluarganya sedang dirawat di General Intensive Care Unit (GICU) Rumah Sakit Dr. Hasan Sadikin (RSHS) Bandung periode Maret−Mei 2012. Teknik sampling yang digunakan pada penelitian ini yaitu purposive sampling. Instrumen untuk mengukur prediktor stres disusun berdasarkan kajian teori dan modifikasi instrumen baku family inventory live events, sedangkan instrumen untuk mengukur stres keluarga menggunakan Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 42. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji chi-kuadrat dan analisis regresi logistik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan faktor perubahan lingkungan, aturan di ruang perawatan, perubahan status emosi, dan perubahan kehidupan sehari-hari memiliki hubungan yang bermakna dengan terjadinya stres (nilai p berturut-turut sebesar 0,01, 0,04, dan 0,03). Simpulan, tidak ada satu pun prediktor yang paling dominan di antara enam prediktor stres keluarga yang dapat memprediksi terjadinya stres. Diharapkan perawat mampu mendeteksi dini masalah psikologis keluarga di ruang intensif dan lebih mengoptimalkan tindakan supportive-educative dalam bentuk pemberian konseling kepada keluarga.

Kata kunci: Keluarga, prediktor, stres


Predictors of Stress in the Family whose Family Member was Treated in General Intensive Care Unit

Hospitalization of family member in intensive care can be a trigger of stress in the family. Several factors which could create a stressful situation in a family are changes of environment, rules in the ward, changes of family emotional status, changes of family member roles, changes of daily activities, changes in financial situation and health care workers' attitude when giving information on patient’s health status. This study was a cross-sectional study. The number of subjects included in this study were 60 representing families whose member was hospitalized in the General Intensive Care Unit (GICU) of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital (RSHS) Bandung during the period of March to May 2012. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling. The instrument used to measure the stress predictors was developed based on theoretical review and modification of family inventory live events standard instrument. Meanwhile, the instrument used for measuring the family stress was the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 42. Data were analyzed using chi-square test and logistic regression. The results of this study showed environmental changes, rules in the ward, emotional status changes and daily activity changes significantly corelated with stress (p value 0.01, 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). In conclusion, none of the 6 family predictors dominantly predicts stress. Nurses are expected to do early detection on psychological family problems in intensive care unit and optimize supportive-educative treatment in the form of counseling for family members.

Key words: Family, predictors, stress

 

DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v46n3.316


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