Risiko Masalah Perkembangan dan Mental Emosional Anak yang Diasuh di Panti Asuhan Dibandingkan dengan Diasuh Orangtua Kandung

- Riyadi, Kusnandi Rusmil, Sjarif Hidajat Effendi

Abstract


Anak tinggal di panti asuhan dihubungkan dengan terjadinya keterlambatan perkembangan. Anak yang memiliki waktu interaksi bermain bersama lebih lama dengan pengasuhnya lebih sedikit mengalami masalah perkembangan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui perbandingan masalah perkembangan dan mental emosional antara anak yang tinggal di panti asuhan dan orangtua kandung. Penelitian kuantitatif analitik komparatif desain potong lintang dengan uji chi-kuadrat untuk mengetahui perbedaan masalah perkembangan menggunakan kuesioner preskrining perkembangan (KPSP) yang menilai aspek motorik, bahasa, dan personal sosial, sedangkan masalah mental emosional menggunakan kuesioner masalah mental emosional (KMME) yang menilai perilaku, dilanjutkan penelitian kualitatif desain in depth interview untuk mengetahui faktor penyebab masalah perkembangan dan mental emosional. Penelitian dilaksanakan Juni 2011–Januari 2012, pada subjek 102 anak usia 3–6 tahun yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi. Pada 51 subjek kelompok panti asuhan terdapat 8 anak dengan masalah perkembangan, sementara pada kelompok orangtua kandung tidak ada. Kemungkinan masalah mental emosional pada dua kelompok sama masing-masing sebanyak 29 anak. Masalah perkembangan anak di panti asuhan lebih tinggi (p=0,002), terdapat hubungan bermakna waktu interaksi bermain bersama dengan terjadinya masalah perkembangan (p=0,003). Simpulan, anak di panti asuhan terjadi masalah perkembangan lebih tinggi, sedangkan masalah mental emosional tidak berbeda antara anak di kelompok panti asuhan dan diasuh orangtua kandung. [MKB. 2014;46(2):118–24]

Kata kunci: Interaksi, mental emosional, orangtua, panti asuhan, perkembangan


Risk of Developmental and Emotional Problems in Children Living in Orphanages Compared to Children Living with Their Parents


Children living in orphanage are associated with delays in development. The children demostrate less developmental problems when they interact with caregivers. The aim of this study was to compare developmental and mental emotional problems between children living in orphanage and those who live with their parents. A comparative analytical cross sectional study by chi square to test the developmental problem using kuesioner preskrining perkembangan (KPSP) or the development pre-screening questionnaire, for motoric, language, and personal social assessment. The mental emotional problems are assessed using kuesioner masalah mental emosional (KMME) or mental emotional problem questionnaire for behavior assessment. These were followed by a qualitative study through interviews to evaluate the cause of developmental and mental emotional problems. Conducted from June 2011–January 2012, this study inclused children 3 to 6 years old who met the inclusion criteria as the subjects with a total of 102 subjects participated. From 51 children from the orphanages there were 8 children who had developmental problem while none was found in children living with their parents. The mental emotional problems in both group were equal (29 children). There was a higher number of developmental problem in children living in the orphanage (p=0.002), and a corelation between caregiver-children play time interaction and developmental problem (p=0.003) was found. In conclusion, children living in orphanage have higher risk for developmental problem while the risk for the mental emotional problems is not different between children living in orphanage and those who live with their parents. [MKB. 2014;46(2):118–24]

Key words: Development, interaction, mental emotional, orphanage, parents

 

DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v46n2.284


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