Aktivitas Antimikrob Fraksi Ekstrak Etanol Buah Pinang (Areca catechu L) pada Bakteri Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Perdina Nursidika, Opstaria Saptarini, Nurul Rafiqua

Abstract


Infeksi merupakan penyakit penyebab kematian di Indonesia. Salah satu penyebab perkembangan penyakit infeksi di Indonesia adalah resistensi bakteri terhadap antibiotik standar. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) merupakan penyebab utama infeksi nosokomial dan komunitas.Telah dilakukan uji aktivitas antimikrob fraksi dari ekstrak etanol buah pinang (Areca catechu L) pada bakteri MRSA. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Mikrobiologi Stikes Jenderal Achmad Yani Cimahi, Laboratorium Farmakologi Institut Teknologi Bandung, dan Laboratorium Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Geologi Kelautan Bandung pada Mei–Juni 2011. Aktivitas antimikrobekstrak dan fraksi diuji menggunakan metode broth microdilution, bioautografi, dan scanning electron microscope (SEM). Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa fraksi yang paling efektif ialah fraksi air dengan minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 256 µg/mL. Hasil bioautografi menunjukkan bercak kromatogram kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT) yang memberikan hambatan terhadap bakteri uji adalah bercak dengan Rf 0,6. Bercak ini diduga merupakan senyawa fenolat karena memberikan hasil positif dengan penyemprotan FeCl3. Hasil SEM menunjukkan bakteri uji yang telah dipapar dengan tanaman uji diduga mengalami kerusakan pada membran atau bagian yang lebih dalam, sehingga sel bakteri menciut dan bergelembung hingga rusak.Simpulan, ekstrak etanol buah pinang dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri MRSA. [MKB. 2014;46(2):94–9]

Kata kunci: Aktivitas antimikrob, Areca catechu, microdilution, MRSA, SEM



Antimicrobial Activity of Betel Nut Ethanolic Extract Fractions in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Infection is the major cause of death in Indonesia. Antibiotic resistant is responsible for this progression. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is known as the main cause of nosocomial and community infections.The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract fractions of betel nut (Areca catechu L) was studied on MRSA. The research was performed at the Microbiology Laboratory, School of Health Sciences, Jenderal Achmad Yani University, Cimahi, the Pharmacology Laboratory of Bandung Institute of Technology, and Research and Development of Ocean Geology Laboratory in May–June 2011.The antimicrobial activities of the extract and fraction were tested by microdilution broth method, bioautography and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The most effective result showed by water fraction with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 256 µg/mL. Bioautography result showed a spot on thin layer chromatography (TLC) chromatogramof water fraction which inhibited the bacterial growth, which was the spot with Rf 0.6. The spot was suggested as a phenolic substance due to positive result to FeCl3. The electron microscope image showed the breakdown of membrane cell/inner site of bacteria which was exposed by betel nut extract and fractions in which the bacteria was shrinked, bubbled and broken.In conclusion, betel nut ethanolic extract has the ability to inhibit MRSA. [MKB. 2014;46(2):94–9]

Key words: Antimicrobial activity, Areca catechu, microdillution, MRSA,SEM

 

DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v46n2.280


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