Manfaat Intervensi Dini Anak Usia 6–12 Bulan dengan Kecurigaan Penyimpangan Perkembangan

Anne Susanty, Eddy Fadlyana, Heda Melinda Nataprawira

Abstract


Penyimpangan perkembangan masih merupakan masalah bagi anak di Indonesia. Untuk meminimalkan penyimpangan perkembangan yang dicurigai maka intervensi perkembangan secara dini dapat dilakukan sebagai upaya untuk merangsang berbagai aspek perkembangan. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui manfaat intervensi perkembangan secara dini terhadap anak usia 6–12 bulan yang mengalami kecurigaan penyimpangan perkembangan. Penelitian intervensi tes pra dan pasca dilakukan selama bulan Januari–Maret 2011. Subjek adalah anak sehat usia 6–12 bulan di kelurahan Cibangkong dan Kebongedang Kiaracondong, Bandung. Penapisan perkembangan anak dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuesioner praskrining perkembangan (KPSP) dengan interpretasi hasil sesuai, meragukan, dan penyimpangan. Apabila didapatkan hasil yang meragukan maka orangtua diajarkan melakukan intervensi setiap hari di rumah selama 2 minggu dengan pemantauan setiap 2 hari dengan menggunakan kartu harian. Apabila masih terdapat hasil meragukan pada pascaintervensi, maka dilakukan intervensi ulang selama 2 minggu dengan pengawasan seperti sebelumnya. Analisis perbedaan pra dan pascaintervensi dini dilakukan dengan Tes Cochran. Dari 242 anak sehat yang diperiksa terdapat 208 (86,0%) anak dengan perkembangan sesuai, 33 (13,6%) anak perkembangan meragukan, dan 1 (0,4%) anak mengalami penyimpangan perkembangan. Drop out terjadi pada 1 dari 33 anak karena dirawat di rumah sakit. Setelah intervensi kecurigaan penyimpangan perkembangan turun menjadi 12/32 setelah 2 minggu, dan 4/32 pada akhir intervensi (p<0,001). Simpulan: terdapat manfaat intervensi dini anak usia 6–12 bulan yang mengalami kecurigaan penyimpangan perkembangan. [MKB. 2014;46(2):63–8]

Kata kunci: Deteksi dini, kuesioner praskrining perkembangan

 

Early Intervention Benefits for Children 6–12 Months Old with Suspect Developmental Delay

Developmental delay is still a main problem for children in Indonesia. Early intervention is an effort to minimize this delay. The aim of this study was to determine the advantages of early intervention in children 6–12 months old who were suspected as experiencing developmental delay. An intervention study with pre and post design was performed on physically healthy children aged 6–12 months in Cibangkong and Kebongedang, Kiaracondong Bandung between January and March 2011. Children developmental screening was performed using kuesioner praskrining perkembangan (KPSP), or development pre-screening questionnaire, to show appropriate, suspected, or delayed interpretation. When the result of the questionnaire was not really clear for making conclusion, parents were tought to do the intervention at home every day for two weeks with a monitoring performed every 2 days using the daily card. If the result was still not clear after the intervention, the same intervention was repeated for 2 weeks under monitoring. The differences found in the pre and post design were analyzed with Cochran`s test. From 242 healthy children involved in this study, 208 (86.0%) were categorized as appropriate, 33 (13.6%) were suspected to experience developmental delay and one child (0.4%) was delayed. One of thirty three children dropped out from this study because he was admitted to the hospital due to illness. After the intervention, the number of children who were suspected as experiencing delay decreased to 12/32 in two weeks and to 4/32 (p<0.001) after the intervention ended. In conclusion, early intervention provides benefits to children aged 6—12 months who are suspected as experiencing developmental delay.[MKB. 2014;46(2):63–8]

Key words: Early detection, KPSP (development pre-screening questionnaire)

 

DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v46n2.275


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