FAKTOR RISIKO HEPATITIS B PADA TENAGA KESEHATAN KOTA PEKANBARU

Rina Amtarina, A Arfianti, Andi Zainal, Fifia Chandra

Abstract


Penyakit hepatitis B tergolong penyakit yang menjadi masalah kesehatan serius di Indonesia. Penularan virus hepatitis B melalui kontak dengan produk darah. Data mengenai pembawa HBsAg dan faktor risiko penularan VHB di Kota Pekanbaru belum ada sehingga perlu diadakan penelitian mengenai hal tersebut. Penelitian dilakukan secara retrospektif terhadap hasil pemeriksaan HBsAg dan anti-HBs responden dengan cara menganalisis hasil jawaban kuesioner. Responden dibagi 2 kriteria yaitu kriteria pernah/sedang terpapar hepatitis B dengan hasil pemeriksaan anti-HBs positif HBsAg negatif atau HBsAg positif Anti-HBs negatif dan kriteria tidak pernah terpapar VHB dengan hasil pemeriksaan HBsAg dan anti-HBs negatif. Dari 110 responden, 32 orang (29,1%) hasil anti-HBs positif, HBsAg negatif, 1 orang (0,9%) hasil HBsAg positif, anti-HBs negatif. Dari analisis kuesioner, faktor risiko penularan dari 32 orang anti-HBs positif terbanyak melalui pernah cabut gigi yaitu sebanyak 29 orang (90,6%) diikuti dengan pernah tertusuk jarum bekas/tidak steril sebanyak 18 orang (56,2%). Hanya 3 (9,3%) dari 32 orang pernah menderita hepatitis B sebelumnya. Pada 1 orang dengan HBsAg positif, faktor risiko penularan melalui tertusuk jarum bekas/tidak steril, pengobatan akupuntur, cabut gigi, dan ada anggota keluarga serumah yang pernah menderita hepatitis B. Faktor risiko penularan terbanyak pada tenaga kesehatan di Pekanbaru adalah melalui cabut gigi dan tertusuk jarum bekas/tidak steril.

Kata kunci: Hepatitis B virus, anti-HBs, HBsAg, tenaga kesehatan, faktor risiko


RISK FACTORS FOR TRANSMISSION OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION IN HEALTH CARE WORKER OF PEKANBARU CITY

Hepatitis B is still the one of serious public health problem in the world including Indonesia. Transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is strongly associated with use of contaminated blood products. For many people infected with HBV, risk factors of transmission are unknown. We examined risk factors for acquiring HBV in health care worker. This research was done by retrospective to blood participants who tested positive for HBs antibody or HBs antigen, using a questionnaire.participants divided into 2 groups. Had/having exposed to VHB with ati-HBs Positive HBsag negative or HBsag positive, anti-HBs negative and never had exposed to VHB with HBsag and anti-HBs negative. Positive anti- HBs were identified in 32 (29.1%) of 110 participants. Positive HBs antigen anti-HBs negative was identified in 1 (0.9%) of 110 participants. In questionnaire analysis, significant risk factors for HBV infection among HBs antibody - positive participants were tooth extraction in 29 (90.6%), and needle stick injuries in 18 (56.2%) of 32 participants. Only 3 (9.3%) of 32 participants with HBs antibody - positive had history of post infected HBV for several years ago. In 1 participant with HBs antigen - positive, significant risk factors were needle stick injuries, acupuncture, tooth extraction, and contact infected person. The most significant risk factors for transmission of hepatitis B in health care worker in Pekanbaru city are tooth extraction and needle stick injuries.

Key words: Hepatitis B virus (HBV), HBs antibody, HBs antigen, health care worker, risk factor

 

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v41n3.245


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