Erupsi Gigi Sulung pada Anak dengan Riwayat Lahir Prematur, Berat Badan Lahir Rendah

Willyanti Syarif Soewondo, Sjarif Hidajat Effendi

Abstract


Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan gigi merupakan bagian pertumbuhan dan perkembangan tubuh secara umum dan dipengaruhi faktor genetik dan lingkungan. Faktor lingkungan prenatal dapat mengakibatkan kelahiran prematur, bayi berat lahir rendah/BBLR, dan gangguan pertumbuhan perkembangan gigi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui waktu erupsi gigi sulung pada anak lahir prematur BBLR. Penelitian ini adalah studi potong lintang dilakukan pada bulan Januari sampai Juni 2009 di Rumah Sakit Gigi Mulut Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Padjadjaran/RSGM FKG Unpad. Subjek penelitian yaitu anak usia 4–30 bulan, riwayat lahir prematur BBLR, dan lahir normal sebagai kontrol. Erupsi gigi sulung ditentukan berdasarkan jumlah gigi yang telah erupsi. Dengan teknik pengambilan sampel consecutive admission diperoleh 137 anak; 49 anak lahir prematur BBLR (usia gestasi <37 minggu, berat lahir <2.500 gram) dan 88 anak normal (usia gestasi 37–42  minggu, berat badan lahir  >2.500 gram) sebagai kontrol. Dengan regresi korelasi linier dan uji-t student, hasil penelitian terdapat hubungan bermakna waktu erupsi dengan usia (p<0,01) Waktu erupsi gigi sulung pada anak lahir prematur BBLR secara bermakna lebih lambat daripada anak lahir normal (p<0,01). Simpulan, waktu erupsi gigi sulung anak lahir prematur BBLR lebih lambat daripada anak lahir normal. [MKB. 2014;46(1):34–8]

Kata kunci: Bayi berat lahir rendah (BBLR), erupsi gigi sulung, lahir prematur

 

Deciduous Teeth Eruption in Prematurely Born, Low Birth Weight Children

Growth and development of the teeth are parts of growth and development of the body. It is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Prenatal environment might cause premature birth and disturbances of teeth development. The purpose of this research was to find out the time of deciduous teeth eruption in premature born children with low birth weight/LBW. This was a cross-sectional study, conducted in January to June 2009 in Dental Hospital Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Padjadjaran. Subjects were children aged 4–30 months with prematurely born low birth weight and normal birth weight as control. The technique was consecutive admissions; 49 prematurely born LBW children (gestational age <37 weeks, birth weight <2,500 grams) and 88 normal children (37–42 weeks gestational age, birth weight >2,500 grams). Deciduous teeth eruption was determinated by the number of erupted teeth. Linear corelation regression analysis and t- student test were used in this research. The results showed that there was a significant correlation between deciduous teeth eruption and age, (p<0.01) and deciduous teeth eruption in prematurely born children with LBW was significantly delayed (p<0.01). In conclusion, deciduous teeth eruption in prematurely born LBW children was significantly delayed. [MKB. 2014;46(1):34–8]

Key words: Deciduous teeth eruption, low birth weight (LBW), prematurely born

 

DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v46n1.225


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