Diet-Induced Changes in Serum Ganglioside Spectrum Patterns in 6-Month-Old Infants

Dida A. Gurnida, Ponpon Idjradinata, Deddy Muchtadi, Nanan Sekarwana, Bertram Fong, Paul McJarrow, Angela Rowan, Carmen Norris

Abstract


Human milk contains higher levels of gangliosides when compared to infant formula. Gangliosides play a role in neuronal growth, migration, maturation, sinaptogenesis, and myelination. Seven of the identified gangliosides (GM1, GM2, GM3, GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b) are dominant gangliosides with different specific functions. Thus, the aim of the study was to understand the effects of ganglioside-enhanced diet and to compare the spectrum patterns of those seven classes of serum gangliosides in infants consuming standard infant formula (IF group), ganglioside-fortified infant formula (GA group) and exclusive breastfeeding (BF group). This study used liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. This was a prospective study involving 30 infants in IF group, 29 in GA group and 32 in BF group. Subject recruitment was performed using consecutive admission  approach from March 2008 to February 2009 in Bandung. Statistical analyses using Wilcoxon test showed that there was a significant change in the spectrum patterns of GD3, GM1, GM2 and GT1b in IF group; of GD1a, GM1 and GM2 in GA group and of GD1a, GD1b, GM1 and GM3 in BF group. It is concluded that ganglioside-enriched diet extends spectrum patterns of gangliosides especially in seven of them, i.e. GM1, GM2, GM3, GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b, in 6-month old infants. [MKB. 2012;44(4):240–44]..


Key words: Gangliosides, human milk, infants, infant formula, LC-MS


Perubahan Pola Spektrum Gangliosida Serum yang Diinduksi Makanan pada Bayi Usia 6 Bulan


Air susu ibu (ASI) mengandung gangliosida yang kadarnya lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan susu formula. Gangliosida berperan dalam pertumbuhan, migrasi, maturasi saraf, sinaptogenesis, dan mielinisasi. Tidak kurang dari 100 tipe gangliosida telah ditemukan, tujuh di antaranya (GM1, GM2, GM3, GD3, GD1a, GD1b, dan GT1b) merupakan kelas utama dengan fungsi yang berbeda. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efek penambahan diet gangliosida serta membandingkan pola spektrum tujuh kelas gangliosida serum tersebut pada bayi yang mengonsumsi susu formula standar (kelompok infant formula/IF), susu formula difortifikasi gangliosida (kelompok GA), dan ASI eksklusif (kelompok breastfeeding/BF). Penelitian ini menggunakan metode liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) untuk menghitung kadar ketujuh kelas gangliosida tersebut. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian prospektif yang melibatkan 30 bayi kelompok IF, 29 bayi kelompok GA, dan 32 bayi kelompok BF. Perekrutan subjek penelitian dilakukan dengan cara consecutive admission dari bulan Maret 2008 sampai bulan Februari 2009 di Bandung. Analisis statistik tes Wilcoxon menunjukkan perubahan bermakna pada pola spektrum GD3, GM1, GM2 dan GT1b pada kelompok IF; GD1a, GM1, dan GM2 pada kelompok GA; GD1a, GD1b, GM1, dan GM3 pada kelompok BF. Kesimpulan, penambahan diet gangliosida akan meningkatkan 7 spektrum gangliosida yaitu GM1, GM2, GM3, GD3, GD1a, GD1b, dan GT1b pada anak usia 6 bulan. [MKB.2012;44(4):240–44].

Kata kunci: ASI, bayi, gangliosida, LC-MS, susu formula

 

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v44n4.217


Full Text:

PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.






 

This Journal indexed by

           


Creative Commons License
MKB is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

 


View My Stats