Gallic Acid Content and Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate Peel Ethanol Extract

Diah Dhianawaty, Latifah Rahman Nurfazriah, Andri Rezano

Abstract


Ethanol extract of Pomegranate peel is proven to have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of cervical cancer HeLa cells. It was reported that this extract contains ellagic acid, gallic acid, and punicalagin which are identified as major effectors of antitumor activity. Gallic acid has been demonstrated to have an antioxidant activity that can influence cancer cell proliferation. The aim of the study was to identify the gallic acid content in pomegranate peel ethanol extract and to measure its antioxidant. This study was an experimental study performed at the Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory and Central Laboratory of Universitas Padjadjaran Bandung, Indonesia during September-December 2019. Gallic acid concentration was measured by using a high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC) and the antioxidant activity was measured by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The extract contained 616.97 mg/kg of gallic acid with an antioxidant activity of IC50 6.1 µg/mL. In conclusion, gallic acid has cytotoxic and antitumor effects from its ability to modulate antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance and inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, both gallic acid content and antioxidant activity parameters can be used as markers in pomegranate peel extract which shows activities that inhibit HeLa cell proliferation.

 

Kandungan Asam Galat dan Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Etanol Kulit Delima

Ekstrak etanol kulit buah delima terbukti dapat menghambat proliferasi sel kanker serviks (sel HeLa). Ekstrak ini telah dilaporkan mengandung asam ellagat, asam galat, dan punicalagin yang diidentifikasi sebagai  efektor utama dari aktivitas anti-tumor. Berdasarkan pernyataan sebelumnya, pemeriksaan ekstrak akan dilakukan dengan mengidentifikasi salah satu senyawa tersebut yaitu asam galat. Aktivitas antioksidan dapat mempengaruhi proliferasi sel kanker, oleh karena itu, akan ditentukan pada ekstrak. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Laboratorium Biokimia dan Biologi Molekuler dan Laboratorium Sentral Universitas Padjadjaran periode September-Desember 2019. Kandungan asam galat diukur dengan metode kromatografi cair kinerja tinggi (KCKT) dan aktivitas antioksidan diukur dengan metode 1,1-difenil-2-pikrilhidrazil (DPPH). Ekstrak mengandung asam galat 616,97 mg/kg dan memiliki aktivitas antioksidan IC50 6,1 μg/mL. Berdasarkan aktivitasnya, asam galat mempunyai efek sitotoksik dan antitumor yang dihasilkan oleh kemampuannya untuk memodulasi keseimbangan antioksidan/pro-oksidan dan menghambat spesies oksigen reaktif. Aktivitas antioksidan yang sangat kuat dari ekstrak juga disebabkan oleh adanya asam galat; asam galat dikenal sebagai antioksidan kuat. Antioksidan mampu melindungi sel normal dengan menurunkan level ROS, sehingga memproteksi sel dari kerusakan. Dengan demikian, kedua parameter tersebut dapat digunakan sebagai bagian dari penanda untuk ekstrak kulit delima yang mempunyai aktivitas menghambat proliferasi sel HeLa.


Keywords


Antioxidant activity, gallic acid, peel extract of pomegranate fruit, Punica granatum

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v52n4.2108

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