Comparison of Antibacterial Efficacy between 96% Ethanolic Extracts from Abrus precatorius L. and Piper betle L. Leaves against Escherichia coli

Felicia Saraswati, Yohanna Angelina, Sandy Vitria Kurniawan

Abstract


Escherichia coli (E.coli) is a frequently found infectious pathogen commonly transmitted through water. In Indonesia, the level of this pathogen exceeds the accepted standard. Several studies have shown the presence of antibiotic-resistant E.coli, making studies on alternative treatments for E.coli necessary. Abrus precatorius L. and Piper betle L. leaves are among herbs that have herbal antibacterial properties. This study observed and compared the antibacterial effects of Abrus precatorius L. and Piper betle L. leaves against E.coli. This was an in vitro experimental study performed at the Laboratory of the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Atma Jaya Catholic University, from August to November 2019. Abrus precatorius L. and Piper betle L. leaves were extracted by maceration in 96% Ethanol, and further processed into concentrations of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100%. Disc-diffusion on Mueller-Hinton Agar was used to identify the inhibition zones of the extracts against E.coli ATCC 25922. Ciprofloxacin disc and 96% ethanol impregnated-discs were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Independent t-test results showed a significant difference between Abrus precatorius L. and Piper betle L. leaves effects against E.coli with p=0.044 and p=0.045 (p<0.05), respectively. In conclusion, Abrus precatorius L. and Piper betle L. leaves have antibacterial effects against E.coli ATCC 25922, albeit less sensitivity than Ciprofloxacin, with Piper betle L. presents a greater effect than Abrus precatorius L.


Perbandingan Efektivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Etanol 96% Daun Abrus precatorius L. dan Daun Piper betle L. Terhadap Escherichia coli


Escherichia coli (E.coli) adalah patogen infeksius yang sering ditemukan dan ditularkan melalui air. Di Indonesia, tingkat patogen ini melebihi standar yang diterima. Beberapa penelitian telah menunjukkan ada E.coli yang kebal antibiotik, membuat penelitian tentang pengobatan alternatif untuk E.coli diperlukan. Daun Abrus precatorius L. dan Piper betle L. berpotensi sebagai pengobatan herbal antibakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan melihat dan membandingkan efek antimikroba kedua daun tersebut terhadap E.coli. Penelitian eksperimental in vitro ini dilakukan di Laboratorium Mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran dan Ilmu Kesehatan Atma Jaya mulai dari Agustus sampai November 2019. Daun  Abrus precatorius L. dan Piper betle L.  dimaserasi menggunakan etanol 96%, lalu dibentuk konsentrasi 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, dan 100%. Difusi cakram pada agar Mueller-Hinton dilakukan untuk menguji zona hambat kedua ekstrak terhadap bakteri E.coli ATCC 25922. Cakram ciprofloksasin merupakan kontrol positif, dan kontrol negatif adalah cakram yang direndam etanol 96%. Hasil uji independent t-test didapatkan perbedaan bermakna antara efektivitas ekstrak kedua daun terhadap E.coli, yaitu daun Abrus precatorius L. p=0.044 dan daun Piper betle L. p=0.045 (p<0.05). Simpulan, daun  Abrus precatorius L. dan Piper betle L. memiliki efek antibakteri terhadap E.coli ATCC 25922 walaupun tidak lebih sensitif dari Ciprofloksasin dengan Piper betle L. memiliki efek yang lebih besar dibanding dengan Abrus precatorius L.


Keywords


Abrus precatorius L., disc diffusion, Escherichia coli, Piper betle L.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v51n2.1970

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