Kapasitas Fungsi Intelektual pada Berbagai Kelompok Interaksi Sosial Anak Autis

Raddi Moekdas, Abdurachman Sukadi, Tetty Yuniati

Abstract


Autis dikelompokkan berdasarkan interaksi sosial dan kapasitas fungsi intelektual. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara kelompok interaksi sosial dan kapasitas fungsi intelektual. Penelitian dilakukan Januari–Maret 2007 pada anak autis di pusat terapi Our Dream dan Indigrow Bandung dengan rancangan hybride selective prevalence. Anak autis dikelompokkan berdasarkan interaksi sosial serta kapasitas fungsi intelektual. Usia dan riwayat terapi perilaku merupakan faktor perancu kelompok interaksi sosial. Uji statistik pada penelitian ini menggunakan Kruskall-Wallis dan Kolmogorov-Smirnov dua populasi. Subjek penelitian yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi berjumlah 99 anak. Kelompok aloof, pasif, aktif tetapi aneh masing-masing sebanyak dua, 31, dan 66 anak autis. Kapasitas fungsi intelektual rendah sebanyak 70 dan tinggi 29 anak autis. Usia £5 dan >5 tahun ditemukan pada 58 dan 41 anak autis (pKW= 0,453). Riwayat pernah dan belum pernah mendapat terapi perilaku ditemukan pada 37 dan 62 anak autis (pKS = 1,00). Didapatkan 70 anak (71%) memiliki kapasitas fungsi intelektual rendah dan 29 anak (29%) dengan kapasitas fungsi intelektual tinggi. Kelompok interaksi sosial berhubungan bermakna dengan kapasitas fungsi intelektual anak autis (p= 0,04). Disimpulkan bahwa kelompok interaksi sosial aloof, pasif dan aktif tetapi aneh berhubungan dengan kapasitas fungsi intelektual rendah dan tinggi. [MKB. 2010;42(3):96-100].

Kata kunci: Autis, kapasitas fungsi intelektual, kelompok interaksi sosial

 

Intellectual Functioning in Social Interaction Subgroups of Autism Children

Autism classified based on social interaction and intellectual functioning. Aim of this study was to find out the association between social interaction and intellectual functioning. This hybride selective prevalence design study was conducted from January–March 2007 on autism children admitted to therapy center of Our Dream and Indigrow, Bandung. Subjects were classified based on social interaction and intellectual functioning. Age and history of behavior therapy were confounding factors. Data was analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis and two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Subjects who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were 99 autism children. Subgroups aloof, passive, and active but odd were two, 31, 66 children, respectively. Low and high functioning were found in 70 and 29 children. Age of £5 and > 5 years were found in 58 and 41 children (pKW = 0.453). Classification of behavioral therapy were 37 and 62 children (pKS = 1.00). The association of social interaction with intellectual functioning autism showed significant value 0.04. In conclusion, this study showed association of social interaction aloof,
passive, and active but odd with low and high intellectual functioning. [MKB. 2010;42(3):96-100].

Key words: Autism, intellectual functioning, social interaction subgroups

 

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v42n3.17


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