Pilihan dan Persepsi Risiko terhadap Jenis Sumber Air Minum pada Masyarakat Kumuh Perkotaan di Bantaran Sungai Cikapundung Kota Bandung

Sri Yusnita Irda Sari, Ardini Raksanagara

Abstract


Sistem penyaluran air di wilayah kumuh perkotaan sangat terbatas dan tidak dapat diandalkan baik kuantitas dan kualitas terutama di negara-negara berkembang. Pilihan terhadap jenis sumber air dan tipe pengolahan akan berdampak pada status kesehatan masyarakat. Penelitian ini bermaksud menggali hubungan faktor demografi dan persepsi risiko terhadap pilihan sumber air minum pada masyarakat kumuh perkotaan. Studi potong lintang dilaksanakan pada bulan September–Oktober 2015 pada masyarakat kumuh perkotaan di 20 RW yang berada di bantaran sungai Cikapundung Kota Bandung. Sampel dipilih dengan metode acak sistematis. Data dikumpulkan melalui kuesioner dan kualitas sampel air minum diperiksa dengan Suncoli test kit untuk mendeteksi dan menghitung jumlah bakteri Coliform. Jenis air minum yang dikonsumsi masyarakat kumuh perkotaan adalah merebus air minum yang bersumber air sumur dan air perpipaan atau membeli air minum dalam kemasan. Faktor yang berhubungan dengan pilihan jenis air minum yang dikonsumsi adalah faktor status ekonomi, ketersediaan jenis sumber air bersih yang dimiliki, dan faktor pendidikan kepala keluarga (p<0,001). Persepsi terhadap risiko keamanan sumber air bersih berhubungan dengan pilihan jenis sumber air minum yang dikonsumsi (p<0,001). Upaya promosi kesehatan mengenai cara pengolahan air minum perlu ditingkatkan dan perbaikan penyediaan air perpipaan harus diupayakan.

 

Choice and Risk Perception on Drinking Water source among Urban Slum Dwellers Living on Cikapundung River Basin in Bandung City

Water supply system in urban slum area is often unreliable in terms of water quality and quantity, particularly in developing countries. Choices on the type of water source and water treatment may be associated with public health outcomes. This study aimed to investigate correlation between demographic factors and risk perception on the choice of water source type in urban slum area. A cross-sectional study was conducted during September–October 2015 in 20 neigborhood (Rukun Warga, RW) living on Cikapundung river basin in Bandung City. Households were sampled using systematic random sampling method. Data were collected through a questionnaire and water quality was assessed using Suncoli test kit to examine total Coliform level in drinking water. Drinking water consumed by the urban slum dweller included boiled water from ground well and piped water as well as commercial drinking water. Factors influencing the choice of drinking water were economic status, availability of clean water source, and education level of head of household (p<0.001). Perception towards health risks carried by clean water correlates with the choice of drinking water to be consumed (p<0.001). Health promotion efforts on how to process drinking water need to be improved and piped water provision should be improved.



Keywords


Air minum, masyarakat kumuh, perkotaan, persepsi risiko

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v50n3.1433

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