Peran Dokter Umum pada Program Promosi Kesehatan di Layanan Primer

Suryani Yuliyanti, Purwito Sugeng, Ratnawati Ratnawati

Abstract


Fasilitas Kesehatan Tingkat Pertama (FKTP) sebagai ujung tombak pelayanan kesehatan perlu mengarus utamakan kegiatan Promosi kesehatan (Promkes). Dokter memiliki posisi strategis dalam kegiatan Promkes di FKTP melalui pemberian Komunikasi, informasi, dan edukasi (KIE) saat melakukan tatalaksana pasien maupun dalam manajemen kegiatannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan menggambarkan peran dokter dalam kegiatan Promkes di FKTP. Penelitian deskriptif dilaksanakan pada bulan Juni sampai Agustus 2017 dengan jumlah responden 48 dokter di FKTP yang bekerjasama dengan Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial Kesehatan (BPJSK) meliputi Puskesmas, Klinik Pratama, maupun praktik dokter perorangan. Data diambil melalui pengisian kuesioner, wawancara dan observasi, selanjutnya dianalisis secara deskriptif. Gambaran keterlibatan dokter dalam pelaksanaan promkes adalah sebanyak 98% telah melaksanakan promkes di FKTP, 82% melakukan promkes kepada semua pasien, 90% melaksanakan perencanaan promkes, dan konsisten dalam pelaksanaannya, 72% melakukan monitoring dan evaluasi, hanya 16% yang melakukan pengkajian data dalam perencanaan, dan jumlah yang berperan dalam strategi bina suasana, kemitraan dan advokasi masing masing adalah 4, 12, dan 28. Jenis kegiatan promkes yang dilakukan adalah pemberian KIE kepada pasien, keluarga, dan masyarakat. Dokter berperan dalam pemberian KIE bagi individu, keluarga dan masyarakat, tetapi perannya dalam perencanaan berbasis data dan strategi promkes masih perlu ditingkatkan untuk peningkatan pelayanan promkes di FKTP. 

Role of Physicians in Primary Health Care Health Promotion Program  in Semarang

Primary Health Care (PHC) is the first line  health care provider that has a duty, among others, to do  health promotion (HP). Physicians play a strategic role in health promotion by providing information, education and communication (IEC) to the patients during their practice and Health Promotion (HP) sessions. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and role of physicians in HP program in PHC. A descriptive study was conducted between June and August 2017 among Health Social Insurance Agency (Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial Kesehatan, BPJSK) care provider partners (physicians) working for Public Health Center (Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat, Puskesmas) and private primary clinics. Data were collected through questionnaire distribution, in-depth interview, and observation and were analyzed descriptively. Of all physicians involved in this study, 98% were involved in HP, 82% provided HP to their patient, 90% were involved in HP planning and its implementation, 72% were involved in monitoring and evaluation.  Only 16% were involved in the analysis of the data for planning and 4%, 12%, and 28% were involved in environment optimization, advocacy, and partnership, respectively. The HP approach implemented by the physicians was IEC to their patients, families, and community. The role of physicians in HP is particularly giving IEC to their patients, families, and community but this role should be improved by adding  HP evidence-based planning and strategy development to improve HP services in PHC.


Keywords


Dokter; fasilitas kesehatan tingkat pertama; KIE; promosi kesehatan

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v50n3.1340

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