Gambaran Faktor Risiko Prolaps Organ Panggul Pasca Persalinan Vaginal di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

Nuring Pangastuti, Dwi Cahyani Ratna Sari, Budi Iman Santoso, Denny Agustiningsih, Ova Emilia

Abstract


Prolaps organ panggul merupakan salah satu bentuk disfungsi dasar panggul pada perempuan. Disfungsi dasar panggul adalah keadaan terganggunya fungsi dasar panggul merupakan salah satu kondisi kesehatan yang banyak dikeluhkan perempuan. Lebih dari 46% perempuan dengan riwayat persalinan vaginal mengalami disfungsi dasar panggul,dan peningkatan jumlah paritas berkorelasi dengan peningkatan kejadian prolaps organ panggul. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran karakteristik faktor risiko prolaps organ panggul pasca persalinan vaginal di wilayah Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Penelitian dilakukan pada Januari–Maret 2018. Hasil penelitian didapatkan 51 subjek penelitian dengan persalinan vaginal yang dapat dilakukan pemeriksaan POPQ pada 3 bulan pascapersalinan. Prolaps organ panggul didapatkan pada sebagian besar pasien pascasalin, yaitu sejumlah 46 orang, prolaps uteri 33 orang, sistokel 44 orang, serta rektokel pada 46) orang. Hanya 5 orang yang tidak memiliki gambaran prolaps organ panggul pada 3 bulan pascapersalinan.Dari penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa faktor risiko prolaps organ panggul pascapersalinan vaginal di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta terdiri atas faktor intrinsik (usia ibu, panjang genital hiatus maupun perineal body), dan ekstrinsik (paritas, indeks massa tubuh overweight dan obes, kenaikan berat badan selama hamil >15 kg, serta dilakukan episiotomi dan terjadi robekan perineum). Upaya pencegahan terutama edukasi, perbaikan gaya hidup, pengendalian indeks massa tubuh, pengaturan diet, olahraga penguatan otot dasar panggul, pembatasan jumlah kehamilan dan persalinan, serta pertolongan persalinan sesuai Asuhan persalinan normal.

 Kata kunci: Disfungsi dasar panggul, faktor risiko, persalinan vaginal, prolaps organ panggul

 

The Description of Risk Factors for Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Women with History of Vaginal Delivery in Yogyakarta

Pelvic organ prolapse is one form of pelvic floor dysfunction in women. Pelvic floor dysfunction is an impairment of pelvic floor function, also one of the most frequently complained by women. More than 46% women with history of vaginal delivery has experienced pelvic floor dysfunction, where increase in number of parity is correlated to increase in pelvic organ prolapse incident. The aim of this research was to understand the description of risk factors’ characteristics of pelvic organ prolapse incident post vaginal delivery in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta district. The research had been done from January to March 2018. The result obtained 51 subjects with history of vaginal delivery which can be evaluated by POPQ in 3 months postpartum. Pelvic floor dysfunction was present in most postpartum patients, with 46 people. If all the diagnoses were described, each consists of uterine prolapse in 33  people, cystocele in 44 people, and rectocele in 46 subjects. Only 5 people had no pelvic floor dysfunction in any form. Risk factors for pelvic organ prolapse in post vaginal delivery in Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta consists of intrinsic (maternal age, genital length of hiatus and perineal body), and extrinsic factors (parity, overweight and obese body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy exceeding 15 kg, as well as the episiotomy and the occurrence of perineal rupture). Prevention action are especially education, then followed by lifestyle improvement, control of body mass index, dietary regulation, exercise, restrictions on the number of pregnancies and childbirth, and safe delivery help assistance according to asuhan persalinan normal (normal birth care).

 Key words: Pelvic floor dysfunction, pelvic organ prolapse, risk factors, vaginal delivery


Keywords


Disfungsi dasar panggul, faktor risiko, persalinan vaginal, prolaps organ panggul

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