Perbedaan Status Gizi Penderita Tuberkulosis Paru antara Sebelum Pengobatan dan Saat Pengobatan Fase Lanjutan di Johar Baru, Jakarta Pusat

Kholis Ernawati, Nazza R. Ramdhagama, Lydia A. P. Ayu, Muhamad Wilianto, Vini T. H. Dwianti, Syafhira A. Alawiyah

Abstract


Penyakit tuberkulosis (TB) Paru merupakan penyakit menular yang disebabkan oleh kuman Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Faktor yang memengaruhi kemungkinan terkena penyakit TB paru salah satunya adalah status gizi yang buruk. Status gizi yang buruk akan meningkatkan risiko penyakit tuberkulosis paru. Sebaliknya, TB paru berkontribusi menyebabkan status gizi yang buruk karena proses perjalanan penyakit yang mempengaruhi daya tahan tubuh. Tujuan penelitian adalah menganalisis perbedaan status gizi penderita TB paru sebelum pengobatan dengan saat pengobatan fase lanjutan di Johar Baru, Jakarta Pusat. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Januari–Maret 2017. Populasi penelitian adalah  penderita TB paru dewasa (umur ≥17 tahun) yang sedang dalam masa pengobatan fase lanjutan (≥ pengobatan 4 bulan) yang berada di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Johar Baru sebanyak 51 orang. Dari populasi yang ada diambil sampel sebanyak 30 orang responden penderita TB Paru dengan teknik pengambilan sampel secara sampling kuota. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa status gizi responden sebelum pengobatan sebagian besar memiliki status gizi yang normal. Status gizi responden ketika pengobatan TB Paru ada peningkatan status gizi yang normal dan status gizi yang lebih serta penurunan status gizi yang kurang. Hasil uji bivariat menunjukkan tidak ada perbedaan nyata status gizi penderita TB Paru antara sebelum pengobatan dengan saat pengobatan fase lanjutan (p=0,763). Simpulan, perbandingan status gizi penderita TB sebelum pengobatan dan saat pengobatan fase lanjutan adalah terdapat penurunan status gizi kurang dan peningkatan status gizi normal. Hasil uji bivarat menunjukkan tidak ada beda nyata status gizi antara sebelum pengobatan dan saat pengobatan fase lanjutan.

 Kata kunci: Fase pengobatan penyakit TB, status gizi, TB paru

 

Differences in Nutritional Status of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients between Before Medication and during Advanced Treatment Phase in Johar Baru, Central Jakarta

Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. Factors that affect the likelihood of developing pulmonary TB disease include poor nutritional status as itnutritional status increases the risk of pulmonary tuberculosis. In contrast, pulmonary TB contributes to poor nutritional status due to the disease-causing processes that affect the immune system. The objective of the study was to analyze the difference in nutritional status between patients with pulmonary tuberculosis before treatment and who were in advanced treatment phase in Johar Baru, Central Jakarta. The study was conducted in January–March 2017 on a population of   51 adult tuberculosis patients (aged ≥17 years old) who were in the advanced treatment phase (≥4 months of treatment) in Johar Baru Public Health Center. Of the existing population, 30 30 respondents with pulmonary TB patients were selected as samples using quota sampling. Results showed that most respondents had normal nutritional status before treatment. During treatment, more respondents experienced Nutritional statusincerased norma nutritional status while a small number experienced decreased normal status. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test results showed no significant difference in nutritional status of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis between before treatment and during  advanced treatment phase (p=0,763). It is concluded that some TB patients during advance treatment phase experience increased nutritional status and some experienced decreased nutritional status. No significant difference in nutritional status between before treatment and during advanced phase treatment is found.

Key words: Nutritional status, phase of treatment of TB disease, pulmonary TB

 


Keywords


Fase pengobatan penyakit TB, status gizi, TB paru

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v50n2.1292

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