Model Program Demam Berdarah Dengue. Peran Serta Masyarakat, serta Sanitasi Dasar di Kota Bandung

Titik Respati, Lia Faridah, Ardini Raksanagara, Henni Djuhaeni, Asep Sofyan

Abstract


Munculnya kembali demam berdarah sebagai masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang utama menunjukkan sulitnya mempertahankan kelangsungan program pencegahan dan pemberantasan penyakit ini. Pengetahuan yang memadai mengenai demam berdarah dengue (DBD) dan metode untuk mencegahnya harus dapat dimengerti oleh masyarakat sebelum mereka mau berpartisipasi aktif. Penelitian ini bertujuan menggambarkan faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi DBD berdasar atas peran serta masyarakat, sanitasi dasar, dan program pencegahan dan pemberantasan demam berdarah dengue  Penelitian ini adalah survei pada 2.035 rumah tangga di 12 kecamatan dan 16 kelurahan di Kota Bandung pada bulan Mei – Juni 2015 yang dilakukan dengan metode stratified random sampling. Kuesioner digunakan untuk mengetahui karakteristik, pengetahuan mengenai DBD, pengalaman, persepsi risiko dan sikap dalam kejadian DBD, program DBD yang tersedia, serta fasilitas sanitasi dasar. Analisis data menggunakan partial least square (PLS). Hasil menunjukkan bahwa DBD dipengaruhi oleh keberadaan tempat perindukan nyamuk, fasilitas sanitasi dasar terutama sistem pembuangan air limbah (SPAL), Program DBD serta peran serta masyarakat terutama mengenai pengetahuan. Upaya paling efektif untuk mengurangi tempat perindukan ini adalah dengan menyediakan sarana sanitasi dasar yang dapat diakses oleh seluruh masyarakat serta upaya pemberantasan sarang nyamuk PSN yang sebaiknya dilakukan secara serentak.

 

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Program Model, Community Participation, and Basic Sanitation in Bandung City

The reemergence of dengue fever as a major public health problem presents difficulties in the sustainability of prevention and eradication programs for this disease. Community must have adequate knowledge on dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and methods to prevent it before they have the willingness to participate actively. This study aimed to describe factors that influence DHF program  ased on community participation, basic sanitation, and prevention and eradication. This was a survey on 2,035 households in 12 sub-districts and 16 villages in Bandung City in May - June 2015. Sampling was perfomed using stratified random sampling method. The questionnaire was used to determine the characteristics, knowledge on DHF, experience, risk perception, and attitudes towards the incidence of DHF; available DHF programs; and basic sanitation facilities. Data analysis was performed using Partial Least Square (PLS). The results showed that DHF was affected by the presence of mosquito breeding sites, basic sanitation facilities, especially sewage disposal systems (SPAL), DHF programs, and community participation especially knowledge. The most effective effort to reduce the breeding place is by providing basic sanitation facilities accessible to the entire community along with simultaneous efforts to eradicate mosquito breeding places.

 

 

 


Keywords


DBD; partisipasi masyarakat; sanitasi dasar

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v50n3.1239

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