Prevalensi dan Pola Sensitivitas Antimikroba Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa di RSUD Arifin Achmad

Dewi Anggraini, Utari Gusti Yulindra, Maya Savira, Fauzia Andrini Djojosugito, Nopian Hidayat

Abstract


Resistensi antimikrob merupakan salah satu masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang besar yang dihadapi manusia sejak era ditemukan antimikrob. Angka multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa salah satunya semakin meningkat di berbagai belahan dunia yang berdampak pada kesulitan penanganan infeksi oleh bakteri ini. Penelitian deskriptif retrospektif ini bertujuan mengetahui prevalensi MDR P.aeruginosa dan pola sensitivitasnya. Data diambil dari hasil kultur bakteri dan uji resistensi antibiotik dari berbagai spesimen klinis pasien di RSUD Arifin Achmad sepanjang tahun 2015. Uji resistensi dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat Vitek 2 compact. MDR P. aeruginosa didefinisikan sebagai P. aeruginosa yang tidak sensitif terhadap tiga atau lebih golongan antibiotik berikut: meropenem atau imipenem, siprofloksasin, gentamisin atau amikasin, seftazidim atau sefepim, dan piperasilin/tazobaktam. Prevalensi MDR P. aeruginosa adalah 45,5%. Isolat MDR P. aeruginosa serta paling banyak berasal dari instalasi perawatan surgikal dan instalasi perawatan intensif, dan paling banyak berasal dari spesimen pus dan sputum. Sensitivitas P. aeruginosa paling baik dengan amikasin (76,9%), piperasilin/tazobaktam (57,2%), meropenem (57,0%), gentamisin (54,5%), sefepim (53,7%), seftazidim (49,6%), ciprofloksasin (48,8%) dan aztreonam (35,5%). Sensitivitas MDR P.aeruginosa terhadap antibiotik jauh lebih rendah dibanding dengan P. aeruginosa. Penelitian ini menunjukkan angka MDR P. aeruginosa tinggi khususnya di Pekanbaru. Pola sensitifas P. aeruginosa dapat menjadi pedoman dalam memilih antibiotik yang sesuai untuk infeksi karena P. aeruginosa.

Kata kunci: Multidrug resistant, Pekanbaru, pseudomonas aeruginosa, sensitivitas antibiotik

 

Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Multidrug Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Arifin Achmad General Hospital

Antimicrobial resistance is one of major public health problems since the era of antimicrobial discovery, inclusing multidrug resistant (MDR) P. aeruginosa. The prevalence of this resistance  is increasing in different parts of the world, leading to the difficulties in dealing with this bacteria. The aim of this descriptive retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of MDR P. aeruginosa and its susceptibility profile. Data were collected from the bacteria cultures and antibiotic susceptibility test results from various clinical specimens in Arifin Achmad General Hospital throughout 2015. The test was performed in VITEK 2 Compact. MDR P. aeruginosa is defined as P. aeruginosa which is not sensitive to three or more following antibiotics: meropenem or imipenem, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin or amikacin, ceftazidime or cefepime, and piperacilin/tazobactam. The prevalence of MDR P. aeruginosa was 45.5%. The isolates of MDR P. aeruginosa was mostly derived from pus and sputum specimens from the surgical ward and intensive care unit. .  The most sensitive antibiotics was amikacin (76.9%) followed by piperacilin/tazobactam (57.2%), meropenem (57.0%), gentamicin (54.5%), cefepime (53.7%), ceftazidime (49.6%), ciprofloxacin (48.8%), and aztreonam (35.5%). Antibiotic sensitivity in MDR P. aeruginosa was much lower than in P. aeruginosa. This study shows a high prevalence of MDR P. aeruginosa, especially in Pekanbaru. This susceptibility profile can serve as a guideline for the selection of appropriate antibiotics for infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

Key words: Antibiotic susceptibility, multidrug resistant, Pekanbaru, pseudomonas aeruginosa


Keywords


Multidrug resistant, Pekanbaru; pseudomonas aeruginosa; sensitivitas antibiotik

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v50n1.1150

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