Aspek Internal dan Eksternal Kualitas Produksi Depot Air Minum Isi Ulang: Studi Kualitatif di Kota Bandung

Ardini Saptaningsih Raksanagara, Sukhriyatun Fitriyah, Irvan Afriandi, Hadyana Iskandar, Sri Yusnita Irda Sari

Abstract


Kualitas produksi Depot Air Minum (DAM) isi ulang ditengarai semakin menurun dan upaya menjaga kualitas DAM tidak hanya dilakukan oleh pemilik DAM, pemerintah mempunyai kewajiban berperan aktif dalam melakukan pengawasan DAM, namun belum banyak informasi mengenai kendala dan tantangan yang terjadi di lapangan dalam proses pengawasan kualitas DAM. Penelitian ini bermaksud mengeksplorasi aspek internal dan eksternal yang berkaitan dengan kualitas DAM yang tidak memenuhi syarat. Desain penelitian ini bersifat kualitatif menggunakan pendekatan fenomenologi dengan paradigma konstruktivisme. Teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui observasi, wawancara mendalam dan studi dokumen, data dianalisis menggunakan analisis tema. Penelitian dilakukan di Dinas Kesehatan, Dinas Perdagangan, Puskesmas, dan DAM pada bulan Mei-Agustus 2017. Hasil penelitian menunjukan aspek internal yang berpengaruh terhadap DAM yang tidak memenuhi syarat terdiri dari sumber daya manusia, proses pengolahan, peralatan, dan higiene. Faktor sumber daya yang rendah menyebabkan proses pengolahan tidak sesuai dengan standar. Aspek eksternal meliputi pengawasan pemerintah, sanksi, dan kerjasama. Pemerintah memiliki hambatan dalam kegiatan pengawasannya seperti kekurangan tenaga sanitarian, alokasi dana pemeriksaan sampel air minum yang rendah, dan beban kerja ganda. Tidak ada sanksi tegas serta kurangnya kerjasama antarlintas sektoral turut berpengaruh terhadap kualitas air minum isi ulang tidak memenuhi syarat. Upaya terobosan baru diperlukan untuk meningkatkan kualitas produksi DAM terutama melalui pengembangan sistem pengawasan terintegrasi yang tidak hanya melibatkan pemerintah lokal, namun juga masyarakat dan konsumen.

Kata kunci: Aspek eksternal, aspek internal, depot air minum

 

Internal and External Aspects Related to Quality of Refill Water Station Production: Qualitative Study in Bandung City

The quality of water production in drinking water refill station (DWRS) has recently been decreasing. Maintaining the quality of DWRS is not only the responsibility of the owners because the government should also playe an active role as the external supervisor. However, few information is available on the obstacles in monitoring the quality of DWRS. This study aimed to explore the internal and external aspects related to quality of drinking water production in DWRS. It was a qualitative study using phenomenology approach with constructivism paradigm. Data were collected through observation, indepth interviews, and document study. Data were analyzed using theme analysis. The place of study was Bandung City Health Office, Trade Service Unit, Primary Health Centers, and some DWRSs with inadequate water quality during May-August 2017. The result showed that internal aspects that related to drinking water quality were human resources, proper processing, appropiate equipments, and hygienic environment.  Inadequate human resource can cause unstandardized process production. External aspects included government supervision, sanctions, and law enforcement as well as collaboration between owner and local government. In conducting DWRS supervisory activities, the government has obstacles such as lack of human resources, lack of funding allocation, and multiple workloads. In addition, the absence of strict sanctions and the lack of cross-sectoral cooperation also contribute to the quality of refill drinking water, making it inadequate. New innovation should be developed to increase the quality of DWRS, particularly development of integrated supervison system which iincludes not only the local government but also the commmunity and consumers.

Key words: Drinking water refill station, external aspect, internal aspect


Keywords


Aspek eksternal; aspek internal; depot air minum

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v50n1.1143

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