Pola Pemberian ASI dan Diare pada Anak Usia 6–24 Bulan

Dhandi Wijaya, Meita Dhamayanti, Sharon Gondodiputro

Abstract


Diare merupakan salah satu penyebab utama kematian anak secara global. Air susu ibu (ASI) diketahui dapat mencegah diare pada anak sehingga World Health Organization merekomendasikan pemberian ASI eksklusif untuk seluruh bayi. Namun, cakupan ASI eksklusif di Indonesia masih rendah sehingga risiko diare pada anak masih tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan menilai hubungan pola pemberian ASI dan  diare pada anak usia 6–24 bulan. Penelitian observasional dengan studi potong lintang ini dilakukan tanggal 20 Januari–31 Januari 2017. pada 160 ibu dengan anak usia 6–24 bulan yang mendapat ASI yang datang ke posyandu di Puskesmas Talang Ubi, Kabupaten Penukal Abab Lematang Ilir. yang buka selama penelitian dilakukan, lahir tunggal, aterm, berat badan lahir ≥2.500 gram, gizi baik, tidak menderita kelainan kongenital. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan kuesioner untuk mengetahui pola pemberian ASI dan MP ASI serta prevalensi, periode, dan lama diare dalam tiga bulan terakhir. Data dianalisis dengan uji kai-kuadrat, Fisher eksak, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA, serta uji normalitas Kolmogorov Smirnov. Penelitian ini mendapatkan hubungan waktu inisiasi pemberian ASI, ASI eksklusif, lama pemberian ASI, serta frekuensi dan lamanya menyusui dengan prevalensi dan lama diare (p<0,05), tetapi tidak mendapatkan hubungan waktu inisiasi pemberian ASI, pemberian ASI eksklusif, lama pemberian ASI, frekuensi pemberian ASI, dan lama menyusui dengan frekuensi diare (p>0,05). Dapat disimpulkan bahwa pola pemberian ASI dapat menurunkan prevalensi dan mempersingkat lama diare pada anak usia 6–24 bulan. [MKB. 2017;49(3):165–71]

Kata kunci: ASI, ASI eksklusif, diare, MP ASI 

 

Breastfeeding Pattern and Diarrhea in Children Aged 6–24 Months

Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of global childhood mortality. Breast milk was known to have a protective role against childhood diarrhea that the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendeds exclusive breastfeeding for all infants. However, the coverage of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia is still small, leading to a higher risk of childhood diarrhea. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between breastfeeding pattern,  complementary feeding,  prevalence, frequency, and diarrhea duration in children aged 6–24 months. This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in the period of 20 January–31 January 2017 on 160 mothers who brestfed their child who was, at the time of the study, 6–24 months old. These were children who visited the Posyandu (Integrated Health Post) of Talang Ubi Public Health Center (Puskesmas Talang Ubi), Penukal Abab Lematang Ilir district at the time of the study, singleton, full term, birth weight ≥2,500 grams, well-nourished, and did not have any congenital abnormalities. Data were obtained through questionnaires that collected  information on breastfeeding pattern, complementary feeding, and the prevalence, frequency, and diarrhea duration in the last three months . Data were statistically analyzed using chi-square, Fisher’s exact, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, and ANOVA tests as well as   Kolmogorov Smirnov normality test. This study found the correlation between breastfeeding initiation, exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding duration, frequency and duration of lactation, with the prevalence and diarrhea duration (p<0.05), but did not find the correlation between breastfeeding initiation, exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding duration, frequency and duration of lactation with diarrhea frequency (p>0,05). Therefore, this study concludes that the pattern of breastfeeding reduces the prevalence of diarrhea and shortens diarrhea duration in children aged 6–24 months. [MKB. 2017;49(3):165–71]

Key words: Breastfeeding, complementary feeding, diarrhea, exclusive breastfeeding


Keywords


ASI, ASI eksklusif, diare, MP ASI

Full Text:

PDF

References


Basa S. Prevalence of diarrhoea among under-five children and health seeking behavior of their mothers in an urban slum of delhi. AJPS. 2015;5(45):8–11.

Lanata CF, Fischer-Walker CL, Olascoaga AC, Torres CX, Aryee MJ, Black RE. Global causes of diarrheal disease mortality in children <5 years of age: a systematic review. PLOS ONE. 2013;8(9):e72788.

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Profil kesehatan Indonesia tahun 2014. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI; 2015.

Story L, Parish T. Breastfeeding helps prevent two major infant illnesses. IJAHSP. 2008;6(3):1–5.

Eidelman AI, Schanler RJ, Johnston M, Landers S, Noble L, Szucs K, dkk. American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement: breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics. 2012;129(3):827–41.

Kramer MS, Chalmers B, Hodnett ED, Sevkovskaya Z, Dzikovich I, Shapiro S. Promotion of breastfeeding intervention trial (PROBIT): a randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus. JAMA. 2001;285(4):413–20.

Diallo FB, Bell L, Moutquin JM, Garant MP. The effects of exclusive versus non-exclusive breastfeeding on specific infant morbidities in Conakry (Guinea). Pan Afr Med J. 2009;2:1–9.

Biswas A, Mandal AK. A study on association between breastfeeding and its protective role against diarrhoea in under five children in a rural block of West Bengal, India. Int J Community Med Public Health. 2016;3(9):2499–503.

Lamberti LM, Walker CLF, Noiman A, Victora C, Black RE. Breastfeeding and the risk for diarrhea morbidity and mortality. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:1–12.

Begum M, Absar MN. Diare in breastfed versus formulafed baby: a hospital based study in 150 children. J Bangladesh Coll Phys Surg. 2016;34:21–5.

Chisti MJ, Salam MA, Smith JH, Ahmed T, Ashraf A, Bardhan PK, dkk. Impact of lack of breast feeding during neonatal age on the development of clinical signs of pneumonia and hypoxemia in young infants with diarrhea. PLOS ONE. 2011;6(10):e25817.

Santos FS, Santos FCS, dos Santos LH, Leite AM, de Mello DF. Breastfeeding and protection against diarrhea: an integrative review of literature. Einstein. 2015;13(3):435–40.

Clemens J, Elyazeed RA, Rao M, Savarino S, Morsy BZ, Kim Y, dkk. Early initiation of breastfeeding and the risk of infant diarrhea in rural Egypt. Pediatrics. 1999;104(1):1–5.

Stanley ON, Kitaw D. Breast feeding initiation time and its impact on diarrheal disease and pneumonia in West Africa. J Public Health Epidemiol. 2015;7(12):352–9.

Mullany LC, Katz J, Li YM, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Darmstadt GL, dkk. Breast-feeding patterns, time to initiation, and mortality risk among newborns in Southern Nepal. J Nutr. 2008;138(3):599–603.

DeRosa M, Grimes M, Park A, King S, Wiener T, Crase J, dkk. Breastfeeding in the hospital: the postpartum period. Dalam: Schanler RJ, penyunting. Breastfeeding handbook for physicians. Edisi ke-2. Washington, DC: American Academy of Pediatrics and The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 2014. hlm. 89–105.

Martin CR, Ling PR, Blackburn GL. Review of infant feeding: key features of breast milk and infant formula. Nutrients. 2016;8(279):1–11.

Hajeebhoy N, Nguyen PH, Mannava P, Nguyen TT, Mai LT. Suboptimal breastfeeding practices are associated with infant illness in Vietnam. Int Breastfeed J. 2014;9(12):1–7.

Bener A, Ehlayel MS, Abdulrahman HM. Exclusive breast feeding and prevention of diarrheal diseases: a study in Qatar. Rev Bras Saúde Matern Infant. 2011;11(1):83–7.

Fisk CM, Crozier SR, Inskip HM, Godfrey KM, Cooper C, Roberts GC, dkk. Breastfeeding and reported morbidity during infancy: findings from the Southampton Women’s Survey. Matern Child Nutr. 2011;7:61–70.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v49n3.1118

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


 

This Journal indexed by

             


Creative Commons License
MKB is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

 


View My Stats