Faktor yang Memengaruhi Perilaku Penggunaan Air Bersih pada Masyarakat Kumuh Perkotaan berdasar atas Integrated Behavior Model

Ardini S. Raksanagara, Ayu Mutiara Santanu, Sri Yusnita Irda Sari, Deni K. Sunjaya, Insi Farisya Deasy Arya, Dwi Agustian

Abstract


Kebutuhan air bersih semakin meningkat terutama di wilayah perkotaan. Kelurahan Tamansari merupakan wilayah kumuh yang berlokasi di tengah Kota Bandung, 60% penduduk menggunakan air bersih perpipaan sisanya menggunakan sumber air tanah, namun tidak semua sumber air dilindungi secara benar sehingga berpotensi terkontaminasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis faktor yang memengaruhi perilaku penggunaan air bersih pada masyarakat kumuh perkotaan dengan mengaplikasikan teori Integrated Behavior Model. Penelitian potong lintang dilakukan pada 188 rumah tangga di 10 RW pada bantaran sungai Cikapundung di Kelurahan Tamansari. Survei dilakukan menggunakan kuesioner dan ceklist observasi pada sumber air perpipaan (PDAM), sumur terlindungi (ST), dan sumur tidak terlindungi (STT). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan sikap, norma yang dipersepsikan dan faktor personal memengaruhi niat untuk menggunakan air bersih pada ketiga jenis sumber air yang digunakan. Pada pengguna PDAM tidak ada faktor yang signifikan memengaruhi perilaku. Pada pengguna ST perilaku dipengaruhi oleh faktor kepentingan menggunakan air bersih. Pada pengguna STT faktor niat, hambatan lingkungan dan kebiasaan memengaruhi perilaku menggunakan air bersih. Faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi perilaku khususnya di wilayah kumuh perkotaan berbeda-beda berdasar atas sumber air bersih yang digunakan sehingga upaya promosi kesehatan untuk melakukan perubahan perilaku harus dikembangkan sesuai dengan jenis sumber air yang digunakan. [MKB. 2017;49(2):122–31]

Kata kunci: Air bersih, integrated behavior model , kumuh perkotaan, perilaku

 
Integrated Behavior Model: Factors Influencing Clean Water Use among  Urban Slum Dwellers

The increasing need for clean water, especially in urban area, is becoming more prominent. Tamansari Urban Village is a slum area located in the center of Bandung City. Sixty percents of its dwellers use pipe water as the clean water source while the rest uses ground water. However, not all water sources are protected correctly that there is a potential for contamination. This study aimed to analyze factors influencing clean water use behavior among urban slum dwellers by applying the Integrated Behavior Model. A cross-sectional study was performed on 188 households in 10 RW (neighborhood unit) on Cikapundung River Bank in Taman Sari Urban Village. Questionnaires and observation checklists were used for piping water source (Local Water Company, PDAM), protected wells, and unprotected wells. The results of this study showed that the attitude, perceived norms, and personal factors influenced the intention to use clean water for the three clean water sources. Among PDAM users, no significant factor was seen to influence behavior. Among protected well users, the behavior was influenced by the interest factor in using clean water. Among unprotected well users, attitude, environmental barriers, and habit influenced the behavior of using clean water. Factors influencing behaviors, especially in urban slum areas, are different based on the source of clean water used; hence, the implementation health promotion through behavioural change should be adapted to the type of water source used. [MKB. 2017;49(2):122–31]

Key words: Behavior, clean water, integrated behavior model, urban slum

 


Keywords


Air bersih, integrated behavior model , kumuh perkotaan, perilaku

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15395/mkb.v49n2.1059

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