Isolasi Bacillus thuringiensis Lokal dari Tanah Kota Bandung Berdasarkan Ketinggian

Sunarjati Sudigdoadi, Hadyana Sukandar, Lia Faridah

Abstract


Demam dengue (DD) merupakan penyakit endemis di negara berkembang termasuk Indonesia. Kasus DD di Kota Bandung mencapai angka tertinggi di antara kota lain di Jawa Barat, yaitu sebesar 1.180 kasus. Belum ditemukan obat yang tepat dalam menangani infeksi ini. Walaupun sudah ditemukan vaksin, namun penggunaan vaksin ini masih terbatas pada usia dan kalangan tertentu. Dengan demikian, pengendalian vektor baik secara kimiawi maupun biologis, masih menjadi prioritas. Salah satu agen biologis untuk mengendalikan populasi larva nyamuk adalah Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Penelitian dilakukan selama bulan Januari–Desember 2015. Penelitian ini merupakan suatu eksperimen dengan rancangan faktorial yang bertujuan mendapatkan isolat Bt dari tanah di berbagai ketinggian di Kota Bandung. Sampel tanah diambil dari ketinggian 600 m, 800 m, serta 1000 m dan setiap ketinggian diambil 3 lokasi dengan metode acak. Bt diisolasi dengan medium selektif. Isolat bakteri yang diperoleh kemudian diidentifikasi dengan pewarnaan gram, pengamatan endospora subterminal, uji fermentasi glukosa, sitrat, indol, dan manitol. Kelimpahan Bt di tiap ketinggian dihitung menggunakan Bt index. Hasil identifikasi mendeteksi terdapat 3 isolat yang menunjukkan kemiripan dengan Bt, yaitu isolat STBD.2.02, CBRM.3.01, dan KOPO.3.02. Nilai Bt index menunjukkan kelimpahan Bt di ketinggian 800 m lebih tinggi dibanding dengan ketinggian yang lain. [MKB. 2017;49(2):110–4]
 
Kata kunci: Bacillus thuringiensis lokal, Bandung, ketinggian, tanah
 
 
Local Bacillus thuringiensis Isolation from Bandung Soil by Altitude


Dengue fever (DF) is an endemic disease in developing countries including Indonesia. Bandung has the highest number of Dengue Fever in West Java Province with 1,180 cases. There  is currently  no drugs or vaccines that can prevent dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, making vector control, both chemically and biologically, the primary prevention approach. One biological agent that has been used to control the larval population is Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). This study is an experimental study with factorial design aimed to obtain Bt isolates from soil of various altitude around Bandung city area period January to December 2015. Soil samples were acquired from 600 m, 800 m and 1,000 m above sea level. Sampling was conducted randomly from 3 points at every altitude. Bt were isolated with a selective medium. The acquired bacteria samples were then identified using gram stain, subterminal endospore observation, as well as glucose fermentation, citrate, indole, and manitol tests. Bt abundance for each altitude was calculated using Bt index. Three isolates with similarity with Bt were identified, i.e. STBD 2.02, CBRM 3.01 and KOPO 3.02 isolates. Bt index value indicates that the abundance of Bt at 800 m altitude is the highest compared to others. [MKB. 2017;49(2):110–4]
 
Key words: Altitude, Bandung, local Bacillus thuringiensis, soil


DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v49n2.1055


Keywords


Bacillus thuringiensis lokal, Bandung, ketinggian, tanah

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