Konsep Kualitas Pelayanan Kesehatan berdasar atas Ekspektasi Peserta Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional

Ida Hadiyati, Nanan Sekarwana, Deni Kurniadi Sunjaya, Elsa Pudji Setiawati

Abstract


Masyarakat memiliki hak untuk mendapatkan pelayanan kesehatan yang bermutu dan terjangkau. Sejak awal tahun 2014, pemerintah berupaya meningkatkan akses pelayanan kesehatan melalui program Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional. Pelayanan kesehatan tersebut tentunya harus tetap berkualitas. Peneliti bertujuan merumuskan konsep kualitas pelayanan kesehatan berdasar atas ekspektasi pasien. Desain penelitian ini adalah kualitatif dengan paradigma konstruktivisme. Partisipan terdiri atas 17 pasien rawat jalan peserta Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional dan 7 petugas kesehatan Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Al-Ihsan dan Soreang Kabupaten Bandung, Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara wawancara mendalam selama bulan Agustus–November 2016. Pelayanan kesehatan yang berkualitas terdiri atas 11 dimensi. Dimensi sarana prasarana mengutamakan kecukupan kapasitas fasilitas. Dimensi karyawan mengutamakan kesesuaian jumlah kapasitas tenaga kerja. Dimensi pelayanan medis mengutamakan komunikasi. Dimensi pelayanan administrasi mengutamakan sistem antrian yang tertib. Dimensi keamanan pelayanan mengutamakan minimalisasi risiko bahaya. Dimensi kepercayaan menunjukkan loyalitas. Dimensi akses mengutamakan kemudahan menjangkau rumah sakit. Dimensi kesetaraan merupakan perlakuan yang sama antara pasien peserta JKN dan non-JKN. Dimensi transparansi informasi merupakan penyajian informasi yang jelas. Dimensi iur biaya mengungkapkan tidak ada penambahan biaya dalam tindakan medis maupun pengobatan. Dimensi kualitas antar bagian merupakan pelayanan yang sama di setiap titik bagian pelayanan. Pelayanan kesehatan yang berkualitas berdasar atas harapan pasien meliputi dimensi sarana prasarana, karyawan, pelayanan medis, pelayanan administrasi, keamanan pelayanan, kepercayaan terhadap rumah sakit, akses, kesetaraan, transparansi informasi, iur bayar, dan kualitas antarbagian. [MKB. 2017;49(2):102–9]
 
Kata kunci: Ekspektasi pasien, Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional, kualitas pelayanan kesehatan
 
 
Health Service Quality Concept based on Expectation of the National Health Insurance Participants
 
Community has the right to receive affordable and qualified health care. Since the early 2014, the government has attempted to increase health care access through the implementation of the National Health Insurance (Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional, JKN) scheme that still requires quality health care. The aim of this study was to formulate the concept of health care quality based on patients’ expection. This was a qualitative study using constructivism paradigm on 17 JKN-member outpatients and 7 health care workers of Al-Ihsan General Public Hospital and Soreang Public District Hospital, Bandung District. Data were collected through in-depth interviews during the period of August–November 2016. Quality health care consists of 11 dimensions: facility and infrastructure dimension that prioritizes on adequacy of facility capacity; employee dimension that prioritizes on the number and capacity of human resource; medical service dimension that prioritizes on communication; administrative service dimension that prioritizes on orderly queuing system; service safety dimension that prioritizes on minimizing hazard risk; trust dimension that shows loyalty; access dimension that prioritizes on easy access to hospital; equality dimension that emphasizes same treatment for JKN and non-JKN patients; information transparency that prioritizes on clear information provision; cost sharing dimension that underlines no additioanl fee for medical actions and treatments; and inter-department quality dimension that includes same services in each service point. It is revealed that quality health care based on patients’ expectation includes facility and infrastrucutre, employee, medical service, administrative service, service security, trust towards hospital, access, equality, information transparency, cost-sharing, and inter-department quality. [MKB. 2017;49(2):102–9]
 
Key words: Health Service Quality, National Health Insurance, Patient Expectation
 
 
DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v49n2.1054

Keywords


Ekspektasi pasien, Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional, kualitas pelayanan kesehatan

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