Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Ekstrak Kasar Umbi Sarang Semut (Myrmecodia pendens) Dibanding dengan Klorheksidin terhadap Streptococcus sanguinis

Fathimah Azzahra Attamimi, Rovina Ruslami, Ani Melani Maskoen

Abstract


Streptococcus sanguinis merupakan bakteri pionir penyebab plak gigi. Penggunaan obat kumur klorheksidin merupakan tindakan untuk mengontrol pembentukan plak gigi, namun karena efek sampingnya, klorheksidin tidak dapat digunakan untuk jangka panjang. Umbi sarang semut (Myrmecodia pendens) merupakan tanaman obat yang memiliki banyak aktivitas biologis untuk kesehatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak kasar umbi sarang semut terhadap bakteri S. sanguinis dibandingkan dengan klorheksidin dan pengaruh pemberian konsentrasinya terhadap kematian sel bakteri. Metode penelitian menggunakan uji  Kirby-Bauer untuk menentukan diameter hambat pertumbuhan bakteri, dilanjutkan dengan uji MIC untuk mengetahui nilai MIC dari sampel dan pengaruhnya terhadap kematian sel bakteri. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Agustus-Oktober 2015 di Laboratorium Kimia Organik Universitas Padjadjaran Hasil uji Kirby-Bauer ekstrak kasar umbi sarang semut menunjukkan aktivitas antibakteri. Zona hambat yang dihasilkan oleh ekstrak kasar tidak berbeda signifikan dengan klorheksidin (12 mm vs 15 mm, p>0,05). Nilai MIC ekstrak kasar berada diantara 9,77 ppm dan 19,53 ppm, nilai ini lebih kecil dibanding dengan klorheksidin, yaitu sebesar 1,935 ppm. Selain itu, terdapat korelasi positif dan kuat antara konsentrasi ekstrak kasar dan kematian sel bakteri S. sanguinis (r=0,867). Dapat disimpulkan ekstrak kasar umbi sarang semut memiliki efek antibakteri lebih kecil dibanding dengan klorheksidin. Peningkatan konsentrasi eksrak kasar umbi sarang semut memiliki korelasi positif dan kuat terhadap peningkatan kematian sel bakteri S. sanguinis. [MKB. 2017;49(2):94–101]
 
Kata kunci: Antibakteri, ekstrak kasar, klorheksidin, S. sanguinis, umbi sarang semut
 
 
Antibacterial Activity Test of Ant Nest Tuber (Myrmecodia Pendens) Crude Extract against  Streptococcus Sanguinis Compared to Chlorhexidine
 
Streptococcus sanguinis is a pioneer bacterium that causes dental plaque formation. The use of chlorhexidine mouthwash is one of the treatments to control dental plaque. However, due to its side effects, chlorhexidine cannot be used in a long period. Ant nest tuber (Myrmecodia pendens) is one of the medicinal plants with variousbiological activities that are beneficial to human health. The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial activity of ant nest tuber crude extract against bacteria S. sanguinis compared to chlorhexidine and measure the effect of increased concentration on bacterial cell death. This study was conducted using Kirby-Bauer method to measure the diameter of bacterial growth inhibition in August–October 2015 at the Organic Chemistry Laboratory of Universitas Padjadjaran. The MIC was then measured to determine the MIC values of the sample and the effect on bacterial cell death. Kirby-Bauer test showed that the inhibition zone produced by crude extract was not significantly different from the one produced by chlorhexidine (12 mm vs 15 mm, p>0.05) when both were used to inhibith the growth of S. sanguinis. The MIC value of crude extract was between 9.77 ppm and 19.53 ppm, smaller than the MIC value of the chlorhexidine of 1.93 ppm. In addition, there was a positive and strong correlation (r=0.867) between the concentration of crude extract and S. sanguinis cell death.  Hence,  crude extract from ant nest tuber has a lower antibacterial effect than chlorhexidine in inhibiting the growth of S. sanguinis. Additionally, there is a strong correlation between the increased concentration of crude extract and increased S. sanguinis cell death. [MKB. 2017;49(2):94–101]
 
Key words: Antibacterial, ant nest tuber, chlorhexidine, crude extract, S. sanguinis 


DOI: 10.15395/mkb.v49n2.1053

Keywords


Antibakteri, ekstrak kasar, klorheksidin, S. sanguinis, umbi sarang semut

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