Studi Komparatif Ukuran Pipa Endotrakeal tanpa Cuff pada Pasien Pediatri berdasar atas Diameter Subglotis dengan Metode Konvensional

Khildan Miftahul Firdaus, Elizeus Hanindito, Bambang Pujo Semedi

Abstract


tersendiri. Pipa endotrakeal (ETT) yang terlalu kecil/besar meningkatkan risiko komplikasi. Prediksi ukuran ETT berdasar atas usia merupakan metode yang paling sering digunakan namun ternyata tidak selalu tepat pada aplikasinya. Parameter lain seperti diameter subglotis atau diameter kelingking tangan dapat menjadi alternatif untuk memprediksi ukuran ETT pediatri. Tujuan penelitian ini menganalisis dan membandingkan akurasi prediksi ukuran ETT tanpa cuff berdasar berbagai variabel pada pasien pediatri di RSUD Dr Soetomo Surabaya mulai Februari hingga April 2020. Subjek penelitian ini pasien usia 2–9 tahun, PS ASA 1–2 yang akan dilakukan operasi elektif. Saat preoperatif, usia, berat, dan panjang badan dicatat. Saat intraoperatif, diameter kelingking tangan dan diameter subglotis menggunakan USG diukur dan dicatat. ETT yang digunakan adalah ETT tanpa cuff berdasar atas diameter subglotis. ETT dianggap tepat apabila memberikan audible air leak pada tekanan 10–25 cmH2O. Bila ETT terlalu kecil/besar maka dilakukan reintubasi. Tiap-tiap parameter dilakukan uji korelasi, agreement test, serta predictive performance menggunakan MAPE, dan RMSE. Dari 48 pasien, didapatkan hasil bahwa prediksi ukuran ETT tanpa cuff berdasar atas diameter subglotis memiliki akurasi yang paling baik hingga 91,67% (r=0,973, koefisien kappa 0,892; p<0,001, MAPE 0,803%, dan RMSE 0,144). Simpulan, prediksi berdasar atas diameter subglotis merupakan metode yang akurat untuk memprediksi ukuran ETT tanpa cuff pediatri.

 

Subglottic Diameter Ultrasonographic Assessment for Estimating Pediatric Uncuffed Endotracheal Tubes Compared to Conventional Methods

Anatomical differences in pediatric airways could be quite a challenge. Choosing endotracheal tube (ETT) optimum size is essential as a larger or smaller tube may cause undesirable complications. ETT size prediction based on age formula is most commonly used, but is not always successful. The little finger diameter and subglottic diameter are alternative parameters to predict pediatric uncuffed ETT optimum size. This study analyzed and compared the multiple variable-based formulas’ accuracy to predict the pediatric uncuffed ETT optimum size. The ETT prediction used subglottic diameter-based formulas. Clinically fit ETT has an audible air leak within the pressure of 10–25 cmH2O. If the ETT predicted was relatively too small/big than clinically fit ETT, it was changed to one size smaller/ bigger. Each variable was then analyzed by correlation test, regressed against clinically fit ETT to test the agreement rates, and predictive performance was assessed using mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and root mean square error (RMSE). From 48 patients it found that subglottic diameter formulas offered the best result in predicting optimum size uncuffed ETT in pediatrics with an agreement rate up to 44 of 48 patients got the right clinically fit uncuffed ETT (91.67%, r=0.973, kappa 0.892, p-value<0.001, MAPE 0.803%, and RMSE 0.144). In conclusion, the prediction based on subglottic diameter using USG is the best method to predict the optimum size of uncuffed ETT in pediatrics.


Keywords


berat badan aktual, berat badan ideal; Prediksi pipa endotrakeal pediatri, pipa endotrakeal tanpa cuff, diameter subglotis

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15851/jap.v8n3.2126



 

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