Pola Pneumonia Nosokomial di Unit Perawatan Intensif Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung Periode Januari–Desember 2017

Ronald Tikuali Salukanan, Ardi Zulfariansyah, Ruli Herman Sitanggang

Abstract


Pneumonia merupakan salah satu jenis infeksi nosokomial dengan jumlah kasus tertinggi dibanding dengan infeksi nosokomial lain di unit perawatan intensif (ICU) disertai jumlah morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Pola pneumonia nosokomial merupakan suatu karakteristik pneumonia nosokomial yang digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi masalah dan dapat menjadi indikator untuk perbaikan terapi. Penelitian bertujuan menggambarkan pola pneumonia nosokomial di unit perawatan intensif RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung periode Januari–Desember 2017. Metode penelitian menggunakan deskriptif observasional yang dilakukan secara retrospektif terhadap 70 objek penelitian yang diambil dari rekam medis dan dilakukan dalam waktu 3 bulan, yaitu Oktober–Desember 2017. Hasil penelitian jumlah kematian akibat pneumonia nosokomial masih tinggi, yaitu 60% terutama pada pasien laki-laki usia ≥ 65 tahun. Komorbid terbanyak pada pneumonia nosokomial, yaitu hipertensi (31,4%) diikuti penyakit neuromuskular (15,7%). Mikrob terbanyak penyebab HAP adalah A. baumannii (38,1%), P. aeroginosa (30,4%), dan K. pneumoniae (15,2%), sedangkan mikrob penyebab terbanyak ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) adalah A. baumannii (32%), P. aeroginosa (30,5%), dan K. pneumoniae (22%). Mikrob A. baumannii juga menjadi penyebab mortalitas tertinggi dengan persentase 45,4% dan terapi empirik yang sering digunakan adalah kombinasi meropenem–levofloxacin (40%), terapi tunggal meropenem (34,3%), dan kombinasi ceftazidime-levofloxacin (20%). Simpulan, pola pneumonia nosokomial di ICU RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Bandung periode Januari–Desember 2017 masih diperlukan perbaikan program penanganan terhadap infeksi ini untuk mencapai pelayanan yang baik.

Kata kunci: Mikrob, mortalitas, pneumonia nosokomial, unit perawatan intensif

 

Nosocomial Pneumonia Pattern in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung from January to December 2017

Pneumonia is the most common nosocomial infection in intensive care unit with high morbidity and mortality rates. Pattern of nosocomial pneumonia is an infection characteristic that helps the identification of a phenomenon or problem and serves as an indicator or model for predicting future behaviors. These patterns can be used for making a standardized therapy management for the disease. The aim of this study was to describe nosocomial pneumonia pattern in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in Dr.  Hasan Sadikin Bandung from January to December 2017. A retrospective observational descriptive method on 70 samples from medical records with an observation period of three months starting from October to December 2017. It was shown that the mortality rate of nosocomial pneumonia was 60% with male patients aged ≥ 65 years old as the most affected group. The most common comorbid was hypertension (31.4%) followed by neuromuscular diseases (15.7%). The most common HAP-causing microbes were A. baumannii (38.1%), P. aeroginosa (30.4%), and K. pneumoniae (15.2%) and the most common microbes for VAP were A. baumannii (32%), P. aeroginosa (30.5%), and K. pneumoniae (22%). Acinetobacter baumannii caused most deaths (45.4%). The most common empirical therapy was meropenem–levofloxacin combination (40%), meropenem (34.3%), and ceftazidime–levoflocacin combination (20%). In conclusion, pattern of nosocomial pneumonia in ICU of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung reflects a situation that therapy management for this infection needs to be improved for a proper service.

Key words: Intensive care unit, microbes, mortality, nosocomial pneumonia

 


Keywords


Mikrob; mortalitas; pneumonia nosokomial; unit perawatan intensif

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15851/jap.v6n2.1337

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